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Social Inequality

There Is No Reciprocity Latin America and Europe :

Unequal Entanglements
Publisher: 
International Research Network on Interdependent Inequalities in Latin America
City: 
Berlin
Volume, number, page: 
n.91, pp.1-22
Category: 
Abstract: 
This paper presents the transformations of Latin American-European relations over time as an interdependent unequal relationship. These relations have been shaped by exports of commodities, including the enrichment of European foodways with indigenous Latin American crops and the environmentally destructive extraction of natural resources and commercial export agriculture. The transformation under colonialism led not only to the settlement of Europeans in Latin America but also to the Atlantic slave trade. The consequence of these relations of domination even today is a limited acknowledgement of Latin America as being more than an extension of Europe. With the end of European immigration to and from Latin America, the role of the United States has grown instead, and increasingly developments in Latin America have also taken on their own dynamics, decoupled from Europe. In the coming decades, relations with China which have grown rapidly in commerce and commodity exports are likely to transform the role of Europe in the region yet again.

Beyond the global crisis :

structural adjustments and regional integration in Europe and Latin America
Publisher: 
Routledge
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
298 p.
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The book aims at offering a comparative, multi-perspective analysis of the different, at times parallel, at times with varying degrees of interdependence, macroeconomic and structural adjustments in the two continents against the backdrop of important processes of regional integration. Its reading offers a multifaceted appreciation of the reality emerging from the mixing up of longer run tendencies deepened by the brute force of the financial and then industrial crisis.

Ancestry into Opportunity

How Global Inequality Drives Demand for Long-distance European Union Citizenship
Publisher: 
Carfax Publishing Company
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
41:13, pp.2081-2104,
Abstract: 
This paper investigates the relationship between global inequality and dual citizenship by analysing citizenship acquisition from abroad in the European Union (EU). Most EU countries now offer facilitated naturalisation to descendants of emigrants and co-ethnics abroad, which requires neither residence nor renunciation of former citizenship. Since the 1990s, over 3.5 million people have used this opening to obtain dual citizenship from a European country to which they often have little if any connection. I analyse this phenomenon using a data-set that I constructed from previously unanalysed administrative statistics. The data were used to test an original theory that explains patterns of demand for dual citizenship in the context of a global hierarchy of citizenship worth. The analysis demonstrated that demand was much higher in Latin America and Eastern Europe than in North America and Western Europe. Non-Western applicants were drawn to the practical benefits of EU citizenship, and their level of demand varied in response to economic conditions like unemployment. In contrast, Western applicants displayed lower demand for citizenship and were unresponsive to economic incentives. The paper contributes to the literature by demonstrating the relationship between citizenship and global stratification as well as highlighting a widespread instrumental approach to dual citizenship.

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