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Social affairs

Pension reform in Europe in the 1990s :

lessons for Latin America
Publisher: 
CEPAL
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
n.7, pp. 127-142
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Reform of European pension systems started from a situation in which income differentials were fairly small, partly owing to the high coverage of the system. In Latin America, informal working and inadequate coverage are still problems,and income inequality is high. Even so, both regions are moving towards individual account systems with strong links between contributions and benefits. Latin America has introduced compulsory financial accounts. Europe is moving towards lifetime pay-as-you-go accounts. Some European countries have set up notional defined contribution systems. In Latin America, the need to provide guarantees for the poor and the specific problem of women's poverty will be at the forefront as long as coverage remains inadequate. Other important issues are the minimum retirement age and the moral hazard associated with systems that encourage or support early retirement. Where these points and the problems of poverty are concerned, the European experience repays careful study.

More than numbers :

How migration data can deliver real-life benefits for migrants and governments(Final version for World Economic Forum in Davos on 24 January 2018)
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
124 p.
Abstract: 
Migration is a complex global challenge. Around 258 million people are currently estimated to be residing outside their country of birth – a number that has almost tripled in the past 50 years. This has policy implications across a myriad of dimensions ranging from border management to labour market participation and integration.
Decision makers absolutely need one thing to devise appropriate policies: reliable information. Relevant, high-quality dataI is critical for designing, implementing and evaluating policies that can generate substantial economic, social and humanitarian benefits for countries and migrants alike.
Despite widespread consensus on the importance of data to manage migration effectively, the current availability of relevant and reliable data is still very limited. Even when data is available, it is often not used to its full potential (including new data which is being produced in abundance from digital devices). Unfortunately, the current debate focuses far too much on how to get more and better data – a technical debate for experts
in the engine room of politics. This report aims to shift this debate from theory into practice. Decision makers need to be convinced of the value that migration data can deliver. This report is intended to support decision makers in capturing concrete economic, social
and humanitarian benefits in line with targets they choose to prioritize – by leveraging the data that matters.

Migration and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Publisher: 
ODI
City: 
London
Volume, number, page: 
133 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Migration is one of the defining features of the 21st century. It contributes significantly to all aspects of economic and social development everywhere, and as such will be key to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
But migration can also negatively impact development, and though the relationship between the two is increasingly recognised, it remains under-explored. We must ensure migration contributes to positive development outcomes and, ultimately, to realising the Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (the ‘2030 Agenda’). To do this, we need to understand the impact of migration on the achievement of all SDGs, and – equally – the impact this achievement will have on future migration patterns.
Here we collate, and draw out key findings from, a series of twelve ODI policy briefings which analyse the interrelationship between migration and key development areas. Each briefing explores how the links between migration and these different development issues affect the achievement of the SDGs, and offers pragmatic recommendations to incorporate migration into the 2030 Agenda to ensure it contributes to positive development outcomes.

Citizens in an interconnected and polycentric world :

Global trends 2030
Publisher: 
EUISS
City: 
Paris
Volume, number, page: 
174 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The report identifies several global trends that will shape the world in 2030. They include: •• The empowerment of the individual, which may contribute to a growing sense of belonging to a single human community; •• Greater stress on sustainable development against a backdrop of greater resource scarcity and persistent poverty, compounded by the consequences of climate change; •• The emergence of a more polycentric world characterised by a shift of power away from states, and growing governance gaps as the mechanisms for inter-state relations fail to respond adequately to global public demands

Food Security :

Vulnerability Despite Abundance
Publisher: 
IPI
City: 
New York
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.1 It has three facets: food availability, access to food, and food utilization. The last aspect refers to proper use of food, including adequate nutrition knowledge and practices.The reference to food preferences acknowledges that in extreme circumstances, people may eat otherwise unacceptable foods; however, such circumstances do not represent food security.
Food security is an important component of human security, and is one of the seven pillars of the UN Development Programme’s original concept of human security, along with economic, health, environmental, personal, community, and political security. More recent human security thinking links “freedom from want” and “freedom from fear.” Living in food insecurity is the quintessential state of both want and fear. As US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger put it at the 1974 World Food Conference, ending hunger would mean that “no child will go to bed hungry, no family will fear for its next day’s bread….”

The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

Publisher: 
Springer Science & Business Media
City: 
Dordrecht
Volume, number, page: 
99: 3, pp.469-485.
Abstract: 
In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium Declaration. For this purpose we will use the P2 distance method for the year 2007, the last year for which data are available. This index integrates socio-economic variables that permit a territorial ordering of the Pacific ACPs, in terms of those partial indicators.

A reflection on gender issues in elder abuse research

Brazil and Portugal
Publisher: 
ABRASCO
City: 
Rio de Janeiro
Volume, number, page: 
21:11, pp.3323-3330
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Neglect, abuse and violence against older women has not been a prominent focus of elder abuse research. This is in spite of the fact that from an international human rights perspective this is considered a gap in policy and practice addressing abuse across the lifespan. A review of the literature reveals three dominant paradigms for studying older women and abuse, all of which have the potential for marginalizing older women’s experiences and needs. An emergent human rights perspective is discussed as a more holistic framework for understanding abuse of older women and ways of addressing this from an international perspective. Examples of research from Brazil and Portugal are reviewed and discussed.

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