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SICA

The trade chapter of the European Union association agreement with Central America

Study
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
65 p.
Abstract: 
The EU Central America Association Agreement is an example of the successful completion of a region-to-region agreement and therefore in line with the EU’s aim of promoting regional integration in other regions through trade and association agreements.
For the EU, economic welfare gains and employment effects from the trade chapter of the Agreement are because of the relative small size of the Central American market expected to be negligible. However, EU exporters will benefit from lower tariffs on manufactured goods especially in automobiles. For the Central American countries (CA), there is the potential of significant gains, but these are not evenly spread. The fact that
CA exporters already benefited from zero tariffs on almost all exports to the EU under the extended Generalised System of Preferences (GSP+) means that there are relatively few sectors that will have enhanced access with the exception of bananas, raw cane sugar and shrimps. Above all, the Agreement will provide legally secure access to the EU market. The Agreement also tackles cross border services and establishment, technical
barriers to trade (TBT), sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) issues as well as trade remedies in the shape of anti-dumping, countervailing duties or multilateral safeguards. The provisions on intellectual property rights include Geographic Indications (GIs). The trade chapter furthermore contains a human rights clause which stipulates that the parties must ensure that human rights are respected within their jurisdiction. Furthermore there
are provisions on sustainable development.

International cooperation in Latin America

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
2 p.
Abstract: 
Latin America has a complex network of international organisations, some covering the whole area (ALADI), some the South American (UNASUR) or Central American (SICA) regions, and some particular sub-regions (Mercosur, CAN). The Pacific Alliance is especially oriented towards other areas of the world (Asia-Pacific). Some are more focused on trade (Mercosur, Pacific Alliance) and others on non-trade political aspects (UNASUR). (Caribbean organisations and other less structured forms of cooperation in the region are not covered here).

Relations between regional integration processes

the legal aspects of the Association Agreements between the European Union and South America
Publisher: 
EUSA
City: 
Boston
Volume, number, page: 
15 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Our main concern is to conclude how South American regional integration blocks could develop relations in a specific legal frame of association agreements and how this fourth generation treaties, developed by the European Union, deal with third countries or groups of countries. More specifically, we are interested in knowing how legally bound regulations formulated in the three different pillars of these Agreements can be for integration processes or member states.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council

on the Commission’s objectives, in the framework of the relations between the European Union and Latin America.
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the Commission's objectives
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
18 p.
Abstract: 
This Communication defines the objectives of the Commission in the framework of the relations between the European Union and Latin America in view of the 3rd Summit of Heads of State and Government of the European Union and Latin America, to be held in Guadalajara (Mexico) on 28 May 2004. Nonetheless this Communication includes some specific references to the Caribbean countries whose participation at the Summit is of utmost importance for the strengthening of the bi-regional partnership. The Guadalajara Summit will be the first Summit of Heads of State and Government in which the enlarged European Union and Latin American countries will have the opportunity to assess the current state of their bi-regional relations. These relations, which aim at contributing to peace, political stability and economic development in the region, are of utmost importance for the European Union.

Differentiation theory and the ontologies of regionalism in Latin America

Publisher: 
Instituto Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais
City: 
Brasilia
Volume, number, page: 
60:1, pp.1-21
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
In this article, we argue that conventional understandings of regional integration based on neo-functionalism, hitherto often used to describe the diverse projects of Latin American regionalism, are of limited utility in that context. Rather than representing processes of economic or political unification, the various regionalisms could be understood more productively as a reaction to the crisis in legitimacy that social orders in the region have experienced under the conditions of globalized modernity.
We then deploy an understanding of regionalism derived from sociological differentiation theory in order to advance this argument.

The EU-Latin American Strategic Partnership

state of play and ways forward
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
90 p.
Abstract: 
By looking at the current social, economic and political trends in Latin America and the Caribbean and at recent developments in the EU’s relation with the region, this study explores windows of opportunity for advancing the EU-Latin American strategic partnership. It is argued that, although asymmetries between Europe and Latin America might impact and diminish the bi-regional relationship, the EU is wellpositioned to play a more active role in Latin America by strengthening existing institutional links, such as the strategic bi-regional partnership between the EU and the
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Euro-Latin America Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat). The study concludes with tailor-made recommendations in order to advance the EU’s engagement and cooperation with individual Latin American countries and with the region as a whole, both through traditional cooperative channels and through closer parliamentary links within the framework of EuroLat.

Regional Organisations and Mechanisms for Democracy Protection in Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union

Publisher: 
EU-LAC Foundation
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
122 p.
Abstract: 
This study focuses on analysing MDPs (Mechanisms for Democracy Protection ) in regional organisations in Latin America, the Caribbean and Europe. The study is organised as follows: Chapter 1 presents an assessment of the state of democracy in both continents, highlighting the potential factors which might pose a threat of breakdown or erosion of democratic regimes. Then, Chapter 2 gives an exhaustive examination of the legal regulations of the MDPs as contained in the various instruments, that is, the Treaties and Protocols. Chapter 3 examines the practise of the various organisations, which is then used as the basis for the evaluation contained in the conclusions, which in turn leads to proposed recommendations.

The EU-Latin American Strategic Partnership

state of play and ways forward Study
The EU-Latin American Strategic Partnership: state of play and ways forward
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
88 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
By looking at the current social, economic and political trends in Latin America and the Caribbean and at recent developments in the EU’s relation with the region, this study explores windows of opportunity for advancing the EU-Latin American strategic partnership. It is argued that, although asymmetries between Europe and Latin America might impact and diminish the bi-regional relationship, the EU is well-positioned to play a more active role in Latin America by strengthening existing institutional links, such as the strategic bi-regional partnership between the EU and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Euro-Latin America Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat). The study concludes with tailor-made recommendations in order to advance the EU’s engagement and cooperation with individual Latin American countries and with the region as a whole, both through traditional cooperative channels and through closer parliamentary links within the framework of EuroLat.

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