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Regional Integration

Trade :

The Undervalued Driver of Regional Integration in Latin America
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.5 , pp.1-10.
Abstract: 
Many regional organisations in Latin America are currently in crisis. Trade agreements, however, have made progress in the region. Today, 80 per cent of intra-regional trade is already under preferences. In March 2017 several international financial organisations – the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) – each independently proposed the creation of a Latin American and Caribbean free trade area

The trade chapter of the European Union association agreement with Central America

Study
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
65 p.
Abstract: 
The EU Central America Association Agreement is an example of the successful completion of a region-to-region agreement and therefore in line with the EU’s aim of promoting regional integration in other regions through trade and association agreements.
For the EU, economic welfare gains and employment effects from the trade chapter of the Agreement are because of the relative small size of the Central American market expected to be negligible. However, EU exporters will benefit from lower tariffs on manufactured goods especially in automobiles. For the Central American countries (CA), there is the potential of significant gains, but these are not evenly spread. The fact that
CA exporters already benefited from zero tariffs on almost all exports to the EU under the extended Generalised System of Preferences (GSP+) means that there are relatively few sectors that will have enhanced access with the exception of bananas, raw cane sugar and shrimps. Above all, the Agreement will provide legally secure access to the EU market. The Agreement also tackles cross border services and establishment, technical
barriers to trade (TBT), sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) issues as well as trade remedies in the shape of anti-dumping, countervailing duties or multilateral safeguards. The provisions on intellectual property rights include Geographic Indications (GIs). The trade chapter furthermore contains a human rights clause which stipulates that the parties must ensure that human rights are respected within their jurisdiction. Furthermore there
are provisions on sustainable development.

Regionalism and diffusion revisited :

from final design towards stages of decision-making
Publisher: 
British International Studies Association
City: 
Cambridge
Volume, number, page: 
42 : 4, pp.773-797
Abstract: 
An emerging research programme on diffusion across regional international organisations (RIOs) proposes that decisions taken in one RIO affect decision-making in other RIOs. This work has provided a welcome corrective to endogenously-focused accounts of RIOs. Nevertheless, by focusing on the final design of policies and institutional arrangements, it has been conceptually overly narrow. This has led to a truncated understanding of diffusion’s impact and to an unjustified view of convergence as its primary outcome. Drawing on public policy and sociological research, we offer a conceptual framework that seeks to remedy these weaknesses by disaggregating the decision-making process on the ‘receiving’ side. We suggest that policies and institutional arrangements in RIOs result from three decision-making stages: problematisation (identification of something as a political problem), framing (categorisation of the problem and possible solutions), and scripting (design of final solutions). Diffusion can affect any combination of these stages. Consequently, its effects are more varied and potentially extensive than is currently recognised, and convergence and persistent variation in scripting are both possible outcomes. We illustrate our framework by re-evaluating research on dispute settlement institutions in the EEC, NAFTA, and SADC. We conclude by discussing its theoretical implications and the conditions that likely promote diffusion.

Realpolitik or reinforcement of the EUs normative power

A Case Study on the EUs relations with the CELAC
Publisher: 
Linköping University
City: 
Linköping
Volume, number, page: 
96 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This research aims to understand the nature and underlying motives of the EU’s relations with the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC). The frequently claimed normative role of the EU will be examined in the context of the EUCELAC summit relations, and the cases should be outlined that cause a switch to Realpolitik behavior. Thereby, the EU’s engagement in regional integration and interregional cooperation will be illustrated and EU-CELAC cooperation areas concerning the fight against poverty and social inequality, the consolidation of good governance and the promotion of peace, and lastly, the regional integration, trade, and economic cooperation are analyzed to reach an understanding of their normative or Realpolitik content. The research illustrates the ways of understanding the EU’s normative behavior and power, and the nature of the cooperation between the EU and the CELAC, whereby it should be shown that the EU acts according to normative consideration and only in few exceptions turns towards Realpolitik behavior.

Multipolarity and the Future of Regionalism :

Latin America and Beyond
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.264
Category: 
Abstract: 
This paper inquires into the effects of an emerging multipolar world on the international institution of regionalism. While IR scholarship has been making a strong case for the regionalization of world politics since the 1990s, the fact that most of the rising powers are also the sole regional powers of their home regions has led some scholars to argue that the advent of multipolarity can only strengthen this general trend toward a more regionalized international order. In this contribution, I challenge these arguments by proposing an alternative way of thinking about how ultipolarity is developing. The implications of this interpretation are that the emergence of multipolarity may actually generate powerful centrifugal forces within regions, which would have adverse effects on the known forms of regionalism that regional groupings have been implementing thus far. This applies particularly to the global South, where intraregional economic interdependencies tend to be weak. The proposition is tested by examining empirical findings across several regions and through a case study

International cooperation in Latin America

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
2 p.
Abstract: 
Latin America has a complex network of international organisations, some covering the whole area (ALADI), some the South American (UNASUR) or Central American (SICA) regions, and some particular sub-regions (Mercosur, CAN). The Pacific Alliance is especially oriented towards other areas of the world (Asia-Pacific). Some are more focused on trade (Mercosur, Pacific Alliance) and others on non-trade political aspects (UNASUR). (Caribbean organisations and other less structured forms of cooperation in the region are not covered here).

Intercambio de experiencias entre los países andinos y Europa en materia de cooperación transfronteriza” informe de resultados

Informe de resultados, Proyecto CESCAN II
Publisher: 
CAN
City: 
Tulcán
Volume, number, page: 
47 p.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Documento que presenta las bases conceptuales, la institucionalidad de la Cooperación Transfronteriza, de aquí en adelante CTF, la importancia de contar con una Estrategia regional de CTF y el proceso que se va aplicar por parte de la Secretaría General de la CAN y su Programa de Integración y Desarrollo de Fronteras.
Parte 1. Análisis comparativo de las experiencias de cooperación transfronteriza en los países de la Comunidad Andina y en las regiones europeas. Contiene las opiniones y aportes de los participantes del Taller sobre las experiencias de CTF en
el área andina, en las euroregiones y una síntesis integral de esas aportaciones. Parte 2. Construcción de propuestas encaminadas a la definición de una Estrategiade Cooperación Transfronteriza entre los países de la Comunidad Andina.
Contiene las propuestas de los participantes, elaboradas a partir del establecimiento de la situación comparada que consta en la primera parte y que serán los insumos para la construcción de la Estrategia de Cooperación Transfronteriza.Parte 3. Próximos pasos en el proceso de construcción de la Estrategia Regional de Cooperación Transfronteriza. Contempla lo que se debe hacer de modo inmediato para dar inicio al proceso de construcción de la estrategia y los compromisos que se deben asumir para el efecto.

Decoupling Trade from Politics:

The EU and Region-Building in the Andes
City: 
Roma
Volume, number, page: 
18 p.
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
In its external relations, the EU advances regional cooperation as a successful means of achieving peace and prosperity. In doing so, the EU promotes its own model as the most successful case of regional integration. A wide-reaching set of instruments, spanning from trade to political dialogue and aid, is used to promote regional cooperation and integration. Noneheless, regional organisations supported by the EU are far from accomplishing their set objectives. Using as a test case the Andean Community, the oldest Latin American regional organisation and a prominent case of EU support for regional integration, this paper examines the reasons behind the EU’s lack of impact in promoting regional integration. Stemming from this analysis, the paper proposes a recalibration of EU policy by decoupling trade relations from political engagement and by increasing support for physical and visible integration as opposed to formal institutions detached from the perceived needs of the public.

Dealing with diversity The EU and Latin America today

Publisher: 
EUISS
City: 
Paris
Volume, number, page: 
n.145.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This Chaillot Paper examines the relationship between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It contends that the original assumptions underpinning EU policy towards the region no longer apply, due to the erosion of the liberal consensus, as well as the ongoing obstacles to regional integration in LAC.
Highlighting the various shortcomings in this bi-regional relationship, the paper argues that focusing on bilateral relations between the EU and individual countries is the way to move forward today, as it is in this sphere that deeper and more concrete cooperation has been strongest. This is because this level of interaction is best suited to accommodate an increasingly diverse region.

City-regions and their role in the Euro-Latin American relations

Publisher: 
Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Volume, number, page: 
2:1, pp.363-370
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
This paper argues that a new agenda for the relations between the European Union (EU) and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is necessary, and that city regions can play an important role in it. Due to the shortcomings of the previous interregional strategy and the futile discussion if Latin America follows the European integration model, this new agenda should focus more on triangular and decentralized forms of cooperation aid, trade issues, and the knowledge transfer of poverty- and polarization-reduction strategies. Based on the foreign policy approaches of two Colombian case studies (the city-regions of Barranquilla and Medellin), it is shown that the international activities of Latin American city-regions can open new perspectives for EU–LAC relations.

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