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Refugees

Trafficking in Human Beings and Smuggling of Migrants in ACP Countries :

Key Challenges and Ways Forward, Informing discussions of the ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
119 p.
Abstract: 
Trafficking in human beings (THB) and smuggling of migrants (SoM), two distinct but often interrelated phenomena, occur on a global scale. Searching for a way out of economic inequalities, environmental crises, armed conflict, political instability and persecution, and in view of tightening border controls and restricted options for legal migration, migrants are driven to seek the services of smugglers. At the same time, a globalized economy fosters demand for diverse types of exploitation, which also makes migrants vulnerable to traffickers. Both THB and SoM are billion-dollar businesses that exact high human costs. This is illustrated by the many migrants dying while being smuggled along increasingly dangerous migration routes, and by the millions of trafficking victims trapped in exploitative situations worldwide. The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States are increasingly stepping up to address THB and SoM. However, they face challenges in developing the necessary holistic, long-term interventions that combine law enforcement with a rights-based, victim-centred approach and with prevention efforts that are linked to development and offer realistic, practical alternatives to irregular migration. This ACP-EU Migration Action publication analyses these challenges and provides recommendations to tackle the difficulties that ACP countries face in relation to THB and SoM.

More than numbers :

How migration data can deliver real-life benefits for migrants and governments(Final version for World Economic Forum in Davos on 24 January 2018)
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
124 p.
Abstract: 
Migration is a complex global challenge. Around 258 million people are currently estimated to be residing outside their country of birth – a number that has almost tripled in the past 50 years. This has policy implications across a myriad of dimensions ranging from border management to labour market participation and integration.
Decision makers absolutely need one thing to devise appropriate policies: reliable information. Relevant, high-quality dataI is critical for designing, implementing and evaluating policies that can generate substantial economic, social and humanitarian benefits for countries and migrants alike.
Despite widespread consensus on the importance of data to manage migration effectively, the current availability of relevant and reliable data is still very limited. Even when data is available, it is often not used to its full potential (including new data which is being produced in abundance from digital devices). Unfortunately, the current debate focuses far too much on how to get more and better data – a technical debate for experts
in the engine room of politics. This report aims to shift this debate from theory into practice. Decision makers need to be convinced of the value that migration data can deliver. This report is intended to support decision makers in capturing concrete economic, social
and humanitarian benefits in line with targets they choose to prioritize – by leveraging the data that matters.

Migration in Latin America and the Caribbean :

A view from the ICFTU/ORIT
Labour Education on line
Publisher: 
ILO
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
pp.101-108
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Historically speaking, the migratory movements of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean have been closely related to the development of societies in these regions and, more specifically, to economic, social and political imbalances

Making mobility work for adaptation to environmental changes :

Results from the MECLEP global research
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
144 p.
Abstract: 
This report is the final publication of the European Union–funded Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Evidence for Policy (MECLEP) project. The comparative report builds on desk reviews, household surveys and qualitative interviews conducted in the six project countries (Dominican Republic, Haiti, Kenya, Republic of Mauritius, Papua New Guinea and Viet Nam) to assess the extent to which migration, including displacement and planned relocation, can benefit or undermine adaptation to environmental and climate change. Despite the different social and environmental contexts of the six studied countries, migration serves as an adaptation strategy as it often helps migrant households to diversify income and increase their preparedness for future hazards. Conversely, displacement due to natural hazards tends to pose challenges to adaptation as it increases the vulnerability of those displaced. Finally, planned relocation can both represent a successful adaptation strategy and expose the affected population to new vulnerabilities.

In this regard, the report highlights the importance of sharing examples of good practices for locally driven and rights-based planned relocations. Other important policy implications include the need for the following:

(a) Investing in disaster risk reduction and resilience to address environmental displacement;
(b) Integrating migration into urban planning to reduce challenges for migrants and communities of destination; and
(c) Stressing the importance of paying particular attention to gender issues and the needs of vulnerable groups, such as the elderly and trapped population.

In general, the report demonstrates how data and evidence are fundamental in formulating comprehensive policy responses and facilitating the potential positive effects of environmental migration.

Ancestry into Opportunity

How Global Inequality Drives Demand for Long-distance European Union Citizenship
Publisher: 
Carfax Publishing Company
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
41:13, pp.2081-2104,
Abstract: 
This paper investigates the relationship between global inequality and dual citizenship by analysing citizenship acquisition from abroad in the European Union (EU). Most EU countries now offer facilitated naturalisation to descendants of emigrants and co-ethnics abroad, which requires neither residence nor renunciation of former citizenship. Since the 1990s, over 3.5 million people have used this opening to obtain dual citizenship from a European country to which they often have little if any connection. I analyse this phenomenon using a data-set that I constructed from previously unanalysed administrative statistics. The data were used to test an original theory that explains patterns of demand for dual citizenship in the context of a global hierarchy of citizenship worth. The analysis demonstrated that demand was much higher in Latin America and Eastern Europe than in North America and Western Europe. Non-Western applicants were drawn to the practical benefits of EU citizenship, and their level of demand varied in response to economic conditions like unemployment. In contrast, Western applicants displayed lower demand for citizenship and were unresponsive to economic incentives. The paper contributes to the literature by demonstrating the relationship between citizenship and global stratification as well as highlighting a widespread instrumental approach to dual citizenship.

Emigrant Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Emigrant Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Publisher: 
FLACSO-Chile
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
358 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Nation-states are no longer contained by their borders. In times of mass migration and ever more dense transnational networks, states of all sizes and all migration profiles reach out to their emigrated citizens in wholly new ways. The variety of policies that target emigrants (“emigrant policies”) is so vast that it seems to have become a new state function. For example, it is well known that states are expanding citizen participation beyond the nation’s boundaries through voting rights and new modalities of representation and that they are opening channels for remittance transfer and offering specific investment opportunities to returning emigrants. However, other, less studied emigrant policies, comprise the symbolic incorporation of emigrants into the nation-state (e.g. through awards celebrating emigrants’ achievements); social service provisions for non-residents (e.g. health and education); and the institutional inclusion of emigrants in consultative bodies, to name just a few.
This book is the first to systematically take stock of the emigrant policies in place across 22 Latin American and Caribbean countries, as of 2015. By covering an entire geographical region and being based on rigorous data-collection, this will be a reference in a literature that has so far centered on a few specific cases. Also, our proposed definition of “emigrant policies” encompasses a wide range of policies that are aimed at emigrants beyond the “usual suspects” analyzed in the extant literature (electoral, citizenship, and economic policies), resulting in 112 different dimensions. This survey of such a broad sample of countries and policy dimensions will allow researchers to theorize and make comparisons on models of emigrant policy on a solid empirical and conceptual base.

Social protection: a fourth durable solution?

Publisher: 
Department of International Development - University of Oxford.
City: 
Oxford
Volume, number, page: 
n.51, pp.62-63
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Although asylum seekers and refugees in Europe and in Latin America are very different in terms of numbers, a solution being implemented by Brazil and Ecuador may show the European Union a way forward on sharing the responsibility within a regional bloc

‘With a Little Help from My Friends’

The Dutch Solidarity Movement and the Chilean Struggle for Democracy
Publisher: 
CEDLA.
City: 
Amsterdam.
Volume, number, page: 
101, pp.75–96
Abstract: 
This article explores the political interaction that took place during the 1970s and 1980s between Chilean refugees and the local solidarity movement in the Netherlands. The analysis of the Dutch political context during the 1970s facilitates an understanding of the positive reception of Dutch society to Chilean refugees and the long-lasting impact that the Chilean case had on Dutch politics. The article also asserts that though Dutch solidarity was essential for maintaining international attention in denouncing the Pinochet regime, the international dimension for redemocratization began when the Chilean community in exile organized itself according to democratic principles. In this sense, the article places the foundation of the Institute for a New Chile as the main contribution of the Netherlands to the democratic transition in Chile, since in the space provided by the Institute, Chilean refugees could debate and spread the ideas of ‘Renovation’, in an atmosphere of political tolerance. This ultimately contributed to the unification of a democratic opposition in exile and the decision to defeat the Pinochet regime through democratic means.

Posters of the Dutch Solidarity Movement with Chile:

(1972-1990)
Publisher: 
CEDLA
City: 
Amsterdam.
Volume, number, page: 
95, p. 109–113.
Abstract: 
Posters are an interesting source for the study of the solidarity movement.The International Institute of Social History (IISH) preserves a collection
of some 300 Netherlands-Chile posters, the majority from the seventies. Many of these posters invite participation in the annual national (Amsterdam) and local manifestations on 11 September, the date of the coup.Some posters are very simple, hastily made to announce local actions or manifestations Others are made by professional artists and cartoonists. After refugees arrived, many posters were influenced by Chilean artistic styles, such as the tradition of political mural paintings.
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