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Political Science

Citizens in an interconnected and polycentric world :

Global trends 2030
Publisher: 
EUISS
City: 
Paris
Volume, number, page: 
174 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The report identifies several global trends that will shape the world in 2030. They include: •• The empowerment of the individual, which may contribute to a growing sense of belonging to a single human community; •• Greater stress on sustainable development against a backdrop of greater resource scarcity and persistent poverty, compounded by the consequences of climate change; •• The emergence of a more polycentric world characterised by a shift of power away from states, and growing governance gaps as the mechanisms for inter-state relations fail to respond adequately to global public demands

Categorising the crime–terror nexus in the European Union

Publisher: 
Taylor & Francis Ltd.
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
15: 3-4, pp.259-274
Abstract: 
For the past 10 years, the crime–terror nexus has been used as an analytical model to understand the relationship between organised crime and terrorism in many of the world's (post) conflict and developing countries. Yet, aside from tangent and anecdotal evidence, little academic research has tried to understand how the nexus operates from within Western democracies and the implications that such internal relationships have on its social and economic security. Evidence related to these linkages in the European Union are immense; however, scholarly literature has shied away from these associations and turned their focus primarily on the nexus in more unstable regions, particularly in Latin America, the Middle East, Africa and South East Asia. This article– based on a study funded by the European Parliament in 2013– provides a qualitative analysis of the crime-terror nexus as it functions in Europe (including its border regions) to determine the operational structure of the nexus as well as where and how linkages between organised crime and terrorism interact. Indeed, organised criminal and terrorist groups have found niches of cooperation and ‘marriages of convenience’ in the EU‘s social and political landscape to operate in an efficient and effective manner. Evidence suggests that, although the nexus model provides a sound assessment of these relationships, the proclivities of the region (a relatively stable socio-economic and political environment) keep the relationship between organised crime and terrorism on one end of the spectrum, focusing on alliances, appropriation of tactics, and integration. Moreover, the EU’s relationship to its regional borders and the operational incentives for organised crime and terrorism in these areas, provide ample opportunities for a convergence of organised crime and terrorist financing.

Expert Interviews and Triangulation

Foreign Policy towards Latin
Expert Interviews and Triangulation: Foreign Policy towards Latin America in Europe
Publisher: 
SAGE
City: 
London
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
This case study is based on a PhD project carried out between 2008 and 2012. The study sought to uncover the origins of EU Member States' divergent Latin America policies. Such policies continue to hamper European Union attempts to create a more unified European approach towards Latin America. Spain, the United Kingdom and Germany were chosen as influential Member States endowed with distinct national policies towards Latin America in order to analyse the origins of such differences. The project began by carefully mapping the different levels of policy activity towards the region and then selected two cases for in-depth study: development cooperation and the interaction of national policy with the European Union's strategy. In a study of contemporary foreign policy, it was vital to speak with policy-makers. I interviewed national diplomats from all three countries under study, as well as EU officials and Latin American diplomats based in Brussels. There are several considerations that must be taken into account when embarking upon expert interviewing. This case study outlines how I set up the empirical section of my study to mitigate some of the pitfalls associated with elite interviewing, including accessibility of interviewees, strategic rhetoric, unreliability and unwillingness.

Latin American Role in International Geopolitics

Publisher: 
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia
City: 
Moscow
Volume, number, page: 
15:4, pp.20-28
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The article shows that over the past decade and a half there have been significant changes in the international situation in Latin America, which affected all the main areas of external relations in the region. The interaction between the Latin American countries moved forward, which was reflected in the formation and development of new structures, such as UNASUR, ALBA, SELAC, and the Pacific Alliance. China has dramatically expanded its presence in the region, which was manifested in the growth of trade and Chinese investment, and the transition from the level of bilateral cooperation to multilateral format. The cooperation between Latin America and Russia has risen on a higher level, which was manifested in the expansion of trade and economic ties and collaboration of certain Latin American integration groupings with the EAEC. The new moments characterize relations with the US, which is clearly evident in US-Cuban relations. Latin American countries have stepped up dialogue with the European Union. All these factors combine to expand the range of external relations of Latin American and Caribbean countries and prove the changing role of Latin America in the system of global relations.

The European Union's Policy Towards Mercosur : Responsive Not Strategic

The European Union's Policy Towards Mercosur : Responsive Not Strategic
Publisher: 
University of Manchester
City: 
Manchester
Volume, number, page: 
238 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This monograph seeks to examine the motivations that determine the European Union ’ s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South
(Mercosur), which is the most important relationship that the EU has with another regional economic integration organization. In order to investigate these motivations (or lack thereof), this volume will examine the contribution of the main policy- and decision-makers, the European Commission and the Council of Ministers, as well as the different contributions of the two institutions. This will make it possible to show the degree of engagement’ refl ected in the EU ’ s policy towards Mercosur,which is the dependent variable in this study. The analysis offered here
examines the development of EU policy towards Mercosur in relation to three key stages: non-institutionalized relations (1986–1990), offi cial relations (1991–1995), and the negotiations for an association agreement (1996–2004 and 2010–present). The degree of engagement will be measured as low, medium or high. The outcome of the measure is created by analysing two factors: the level of ‘ambition’ and the level of ‘commitment’.

Regional Organisations and Mechanisms for Democracy Protection in Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union

Publisher: 
EU-LAC Foundation
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
122 p.
Abstract: 
This study focuses on analysing MDPs (Mechanisms for Democracy Protection ) in regional organisations in Latin America, the Caribbean and Europe. The study is organised as follows: Chapter 1 presents an assessment of the state of democracy in both continents, highlighting the potential factors which might pose a threat of breakdown or erosion of democratic regimes. Then, Chapter 2 gives an exhaustive examination of the legal regulations of the MDPs as contained in the various instruments, that is, the Treaties and Protocols. Chapter 3 examines the practise of the various organisations, which is then used as the basis for the evaluation contained in the conclusions, which in turn leads to proposed recommendations.

Environmental Governance in Latin America

Environmental Governance in Latin America
Publisher: 
Palgrave Macmillan
City: 
Basingstoke
Volume, number, page: 
XII, 338 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The multiple purposes of nature – livelihood for communities, revenues for states, commodities for companies, and biodiversity for conservationists – have turned environmental governance in Latin America into a highly contested arena. In such a resource-rich region, unequal power relations, conflicting priorities, and trade-offs among multiple goals have led to a myriad of contrasting initiatives that are reshaping social relations and rural territories. This edited collection addresses these tensions by unpacking environmental governance as a complex process of formulating and contesting values, procedures and practices shaping the access, control and use of natural resources. Contributors from various fields address the challenges, limitations, and possibilities for a more sustainable, equal, and fair development. In this book, environmental governance is seen as an overarching concept defining the dynamic and multi-layered repertoire of society-nature interactions, where images of nature and discourses on the use of natural resources are mediated by contextual processes at multiple scales.

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