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Migration and Development

Trafficking in Human Beings and Smuggling of Migrants in ACP Countries :

Key Challenges and Ways Forward, Informing discussions of the ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
119 p.
Abstract: 
Trafficking in human beings (THB) and smuggling of migrants (SoM), two distinct but often interrelated phenomena, occur on a global scale. Searching for a way out of economic inequalities, environmental crises, armed conflict, political instability and persecution, and in view of tightening border controls and restricted options for legal migration, migrants are driven to seek the services of smugglers. At the same time, a globalized economy fosters demand for diverse types of exploitation, which also makes migrants vulnerable to traffickers. Both THB and SoM are billion-dollar businesses that exact high human costs. This is illustrated by the many migrants dying while being smuggled along increasingly dangerous migration routes, and by the millions of trafficking victims trapped in exploitative situations worldwide. The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States are increasingly stepping up to address THB and SoM. However, they face challenges in developing the necessary holistic, long-term interventions that combine law enforcement with a rights-based, victim-centred approach and with prevention efforts that are linked to development and offer realistic, practical alternatives to irregular migration. This ACP-EU Migration Action publication analyses these challenges and provides recommendations to tackle the difficulties that ACP countries face in relation to THB and SoM.

Remittances in ACP Countries :

Key Challenges and Ways Forward, Informing Discussions of the ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
188 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Remittances that migrants send home play an important role in boosting the home country’s development as they are a steady, reliable source of investment that helps millions of individuals and households to raise living standards, improve health and education, provide capital for entrepreneurial pursuits and, in many instances, can foster financial inclusion. This is especially true for the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries, which present some of the highest remittance dependency ratios in the world. Despite multiple efforts and international commitments, challenges still remain. Costs of sending remittances are high, and there are many obstacles to access affordable formal remittance channels.

The publication ACP Countries: Key Challenges and Ways Forward presents the main challenges that ACP countries face today in relation to remittances and provides nine possible ways forward to tackle these difficulties.

Proposal for the creation of an Observatory for Migration between the EU and Latinamerica and the Caribbean

Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Bruselas
Volume, number, page: 
18 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The creation of the Euro-Latin American Migration Observatory (EU-LAC-MO) responds to three pressing needs, specifically: databases of reliable and comparable empirical data; research into the causes and consequences of migration; and analysis of the policies developed by the institutions and their suitability for meeting the requirements. Based on the three key thematic areas of the structured dialogue (links between migration and
development; regular migration; and irregular migration), the functions of the Observatory would be as follows: 1) collation of existing databases and harmonisation of statistical methods; 2) dissemination of existing research and generation of new research to fill existing gaps; 3) analysis of public policy, dissemination of administrative manuals, identification of best practice and creation of performance indicators; and 4) application of international and regional legislation. The organisation could be part of the Euro-Latin American Foundation or of a body such as the IOM or SEGIB (Ibero-American General Secretariat). It should have an International Committee as its consultative and coordinating body, an Executive Committee
for operations and various national coordination branches. The funding for the Executive Committee could come from organisational budgets, from a trust fund or from a mixed system. The resources for projects and activities could be provided by international and national bodies or could come from international cooperation.

More than numbers :

How migration data can deliver real-life benefits for migrants and governments(Final version for World Economic Forum in Davos on 24 January 2018)
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
124 p.
Abstract: 
Migration is a complex global challenge. Around 258 million people are currently estimated to be residing outside their country of birth – a number that has almost tripled in the past 50 years. This has policy implications across a myriad of dimensions ranging from border management to labour market participation and integration.
Decision makers absolutely need one thing to devise appropriate policies: reliable information. Relevant, high-quality dataI is critical for designing, implementing and evaluating policies that can generate substantial economic, social and humanitarian benefits for countries and migrants alike.
Despite widespread consensus on the importance of data to manage migration effectively, the current availability of relevant and reliable data is still very limited. Even when data is available, it is often not used to its full potential (including new data which is being produced in abundance from digital devices). Unfortunately, the current debate focuses far too much on how to get more and better data – a technical debate for experts
in the engine room of politics. This report aims to shift this debate from theory into practice. Decision makers need to be convinced of the value that migration data can deliver. This report is intended to support decision makers in capturing concrete economic, social
and humanitarian benefits in line with targets they choose to prioritize – by leveraging the data that matters.

Migration and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Publisher: 
ODI
City: 
London
Volume, number, page: 
133 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Migration is one of the defining features of the 21st century. It contributes significantly to all aspects of economic and social development everywhere, and as such will be key to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
But migration can also negatively impact development, and though the relationship between the two is increasingly recognised, it remains under-explored. We must ensure migration contributes to positive development outcomes and, ultimately, to realising the Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (the ‘2030 Agenda’). To do this, we need to understand the impact of migration on the achievement of all SDGs, and – equally – the impact this achievement will have on future migration patterns.
Here we collate, and draw out key findings from, a series of twelve ODI policy briefings which analyse the interrelationship between migration and key development areas. Each briefing explores how the links between migration and these different development issues affect the achievement of the SDGs, and offers pragmatic recommendations to incorporate migration into the 2030 Agenda to ensure it contributes to positive development outcomes.

Making mobility work for adaptation to environmental changes :

Results from the MECLEP global research
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
144 p.
Abstract: 
This report is the final publication of the European Union–funded Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Evidence for Policy (MECLEP) project. The comparative report builds on desk reviews, household surveys and qualitative interviews conducted in the six project countries (Dominican Republic, Haiti, Kenya, Republic of Mauritius, Papua New Guinea and Viet Nam) to assess the extent to which migration, including displacement and planned relocation, can benefit or undermine adaptation to environmental and climate change. Despite the different social and environmental contexts of the six studied countries, migration serves as an adaptation strategy as it often helps migrant households to diversify income and increase their preparedness for future hazards. Conversely, displacement due to natural hazards tends to pose challenges to adaptation as it increases the vulnerability of those displaced. Finally, planned relocation can both represent a successful adaptation strategy and expose the affected population to new vulnerabilities.

In this regard, the report highlights the importance of sharing examples of good practices for locally driven and rights-based planned relocations. Other important policy implications include the need for the following:

(a) Investing in disaster risk reduction and resilience to address environmental displacement;
(b) Integrating migration into urban planning to reduce challenges for migrants and communities of destination; and
(c) Stressing the importance of paying particular attention to gender issues and the needs of vulnerable groups, such as the elderly and trapped population.

In general, the report demonstrates how data and evidence are fundamental in formulating comprehensive policy responses and facilitating the potential positive effects of environmental migration.

Open-Border Immigration Policy

A Step towards Global Justice
Publisher: 
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
City: 
Tijuana
Volume, number, page: 
8:4, pp. 41-72
Abstract: 
In this article we argue for a world in which open borders are the rule and not the exception. This argument is based on the general recognition of ius migrandi as a basic right of persons. An open-border immigration policy is preferable—at least from a normative standpoint—to the typical policies designed to control or block borders through the simplistic mode of constructing walls. On the basis of a global conception of distributive justice as suggested by cosmopolitan egalitarians, we claim that open-door policies—or, failing in that, the implementation of a system of economic compensation for poor countries—provide powerful means to respond to the enormous inequalities that exist between countries and represent an
appropriate way to order current migratory flows
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