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International trade agreements

Trade :

The Undervalued Driver of Regional Integration in Latin America
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.5 , pp.1-10.
Abstract: 
Many regional organisations in Latin America are currently in crisis. Trade agreements, however, have made progress in the region. Today, 80 per cent of intra-regional trade is already under preferences. In March 2017 several international financial organisations – the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) – each independently proposed the creation of a Latin American and Caribbean free trade area

Trade and development nexus :

reflections on the performance of trade in goods under the CARIFORUM-European Union Partnership Agreement A CARIFORUM perspective
Publisher: 
ECLAC
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
54 p.
Abstract: 
Given the asymmetry in the levels of development and capacity which exist between the EU and CARIFORUM States, the architects of the CARIFORUM-European Union (EU) Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) anticipated the need for review and monitoring of the impacts of
implementation. Article 5 and other provisions in the Agreement therefore specifically mandate that monitoring be undertaken to ensure that the Agreement benefits a wide cross-section of the population in member countries.The paper seeks to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of the EPA on CARIFORUM countries. In so doing, it highlights some critical information and implementation gaps and challenges that have emerged during the implementation process. The analysis however, is restricted to goods trade. The services sector will be the subject of a separate report.
The paper draws on a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses. While the paper undertakes a CARIFORUM-wide analysis for the most part, five CARIFORUM member states including Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Lucia are examined more closely in some instances. These economies were selected by virtue of economic structure and development constraints, as a representative subset of CARIFORUM, which comprises the CARICOM membership as well as the Dominican Republic.

EU-MERCOSUR trade agreement

finding winners products for Paraguay
Publisher: 
Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
City: 
Mendoza
Volume, number, page: 
18:1, pp.229-249
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The European Union (EU) and the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) have been negotiating a Regional Association Agreement (RAA) since the mid-nineties. This paper aims to identify products at the level of sub-headings of the Harmonized System which would benefit from the signing of the agreement. The methodology used trade indicators combined with trade statistics from 2010 to 2012. A total of 61 subheadings were identified with potential to increase its exports to the EU with the agreement. At first glance they reproduced the traditional pattern of exports from the MERCOSUR countries, a high concentration in agrifood products due to high exported value of one product. When this product was not considered an important number of manufactures were identified as having potential to increase their exports to the EU. This finding showed a potential to decrease the dependence on primary or raw material exports. The paper focused on tariffs; therefore further research on non-tariff measures for market access is a must.

The free trade agreement between the European Union and Mexico

impact on trade and foreign direct investment
Publisher: 
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
43:1, pp.115-135
Abstract: 
The Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and Mexico (FTA EU-MX) has contributed to reactivate the economic relations between them since they have implemented the global agreement that came into effect in the year 2000 and that has permitted that the economic and trade relations between both parties have strengthened.
However, it will be shown that there does exist the need to adapt the FTA EU-MX to the actual national, regional and international circumstances and to promote changes in order to gain more benefits for Mexico and its population.

EU trade relations with Latin America

Results and challenges in implementing the EU-Colombia/Peru trade agreement
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
58 p.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The Trade Agreement between the EU and Peru and Colombia has been provisionally implemented since the middle of 2013. However, based on limited secondary data available to date on its effects, this report shows that trade profiles have not been substantially altered. EU exports to Latin America are dominated by pharmaceuticals, machinery and vehicles, and have experienced very slight increases. Colombian exports to the EU have benefitted more than Peruvian exports from improved access, but oil and minerals remain the top exports. Fruit, vegetables, flowers and above all sugar cane and confectionaries have been the greatest beneficiaries of the tariff eliminations and reductions. Despite this lack of substantial change, the institutional arrangements and sub-committees created by the Agreement have been implemented. Civil society has also been involved in meetings of the Trade and Sustainability sub-committee, but resource and capacity constraints preclude smaller organisations from full participation in the process. Sadly, reports of the human rights situation in Colombia, in particular the plight of trade unionists, continue to be negative. Although the Government has made progress in legislative terms, the full implementation of measures at the local level remains incomplete and challenging

Overview and figures

in-depth analysis
Overview and figures
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
24 p.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Trade relations between the EU and Latin American countries have come back into the spotlight in recent years. Collectively, the countries forming the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) represent the fifth largest trading partner of the EU. The EU has concluded agreements with two Latin American (LA) groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group) and with four other Latin American countries (Mexico, Chile, Peru and Colombia). The FTAs concluded by the EU with Latin American countries differ considerably in terms of coverage and methodology depending on the time at which they were concluded and the context of the negotiations. The EU now aims to modernise the oldest FTAs, concluded with Mexico and Chile, in order to align them to the current standards of EU FTAs. The longstanding negotiations on a comprehensive trade agreement with Mercosur – which would mean the EU then had trade agreements with nearly all of Latin America – are yet to pick up pace, however

The European Union's Policy Towards Mercosur : Responsive Not Strategic

The European Union's Policy Towards Mercosur : Responsive Not Strategic
Publisher: 
University of Manchester
City: 
Manchester
Volume, number, page: 
238 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This monograph seeks to examine the motivations that determine the European Union ’ s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South
(Mercosur), which is the most important relationship that the EU has with another regional economic integration organization. In order to investigate these motivations (or lack thereof), this volume will examine the contribution of the main policy- and decision-makers, the European Commission and the Council of Ministers, as well as the different contributions of the two institutions. This will make it possible to show the degree of engagement’ refl ected in the EU ’ s policy towards Mercosur,which is the dependent variable in this study. The analysis offered here
examines the development of EU policy towards Mercosur in relation to three key stages: non-institutionalized relations (1986–1990), offi cial relations (1991–1995), and the negotiations for an association agreement (1996–2004 and 2010–present). The degree of engagement will be measured as low, medium or high. The outcome of the measure is created by analysing two factors: the level of ‘ambition’ and the level of ‘commitment’.
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