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International Organizations

Trade :

The Undervalued Driver of Regional Integration in Latin America
Volume, number, page: 
n.5 , pp.1-10.
Many regional organisations in Latin America are currently in crisis. Trade agreements, however, have made progress in the region. Today, 80 per cent of intra-regional trade is already under preferences. In March 2017 several international financial organisations – the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) – each independently proposed the creation of a Latin American and Caribbean free trade area

International cooperation in Latin America

Volume, number, page: 
2 p.
Latin America has a complex network of international organisations, some covering the whole area (ALADI), some the South American (UNASUR) or Central American (SICA) regions, and some particular sub-regions (Mercosur, CAN). The Pacific Alliance is especially oriented towards other areas of the world (Asia-Pacific). Some are more focused on trade (Mercosur, Pacific Alliance) and others on non-trade political aspects (UNASUR). (Caribbean organisations and other less structured forms of cooperation in the region are not covered here).

Interregionalism: A Case Study of the European Union and Mercosur

University of Warwick
Volume, number, page: 
Considered Countries: 
Since 1999, the European Union (EU) and Mercosur have been negotiating an association agreement. In order to
understand the relation between the two regions it is necessary to establish a theoretical framework and the
context in which they operate. Therefore, it is important to bear in mind that, since the end of the Cold War, the
world has become a more complex place. Consequently, the old theories of International Relations that used to
explain the relation between superpowers and their satellites are no longer useful to understand the current
dynamics. The objective of this article is to comprehensively analyse the relations between Europe and the
Southern Cone, by studying relations between the regions under a new theoretical approach: interregionalism.
This article is divided into two parts. Part one analyses the spectrum of EU and Mercosur interregional relations
based on the typology suggested by Heiner Hänggi. Here it is assumed that the EU possesses a greater quantity
of institutionalised interregional relations than Mercosur. It is clear, then, that the EU is the hub par excellence.
Moreover, the article analyses the Triad relations’ network; it states that relations between North America,
Western Europe and East Asia create the world’s most complex interregional space and have provided a basic
structure for new interregionalism. The origin of interregional relations between the Triad regions was due to
many factors. In the context of Latin America in general and Mercosur in particular, the latter is attractive to
extra-hemispheric regions as a consequence of the United States’ negotiations in the framework of the Free
Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). In this context, Europe fears being excluded from this process that could
end up with the construction of a mega-region that would connect the whole Western Hemisphere.
Consequently, the EU is interested in establishing summits and special relations with Latin America and the
Caribbean. Part two deals with the functions of interregionalism described by Jürgen Rüland, applied to the
specific case of EU-Mercosur relations. These functions are: balancing and bandwagoning, institution-building,
rationalizing, agenda-setting and controlling, identity-building, stabilizing and development.
Following Hänggi’s analysis, interregional relations between two regional organisations constitute
interregionalism in the most pure, institutionalised and complex variety. This is the context in which EUMercosur
relations take place.
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