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International migration

Trafficking in Human Beings and Smuggling of Migrants in ACP Countries :

Key Challenges and Ways Forward, Informing discussions of the ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
119 p.
Abstract: 
Trafficking in human beings (THB) and smuggling of migrants (SoM), two distinct but often interrelated phenomena, occur on a global scale. Searching for a way out of economic inequalities, environmental crises, armed conflict, political instability and persecution, and in view of tightening border controls and restricted options for legal migration, migrants are driven to seek the services of smugglers. At the same time, a globalized economy fosters demand for diverse types of exploitation, which also makes migrants vulnerable to traffickers. Both THB and SoM are billion-dollar businesses that exact high human costs. This is illustrated by the many migrants dying while being smuggled along increasingly dangerous migration routes, and by the millions of trafficking victims trapped in exploitative situations worldwide. The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States are increasingly stepping up to address THB and SoM. However, they face challenges in developing the necessary holistic, long-term interventions that combine law enforcement with a rights-based, victim-centred approach and with prevention efforts that are linked to development and offer realistic, practical alternatives to irregular migration. This ACP-EU Migration Action publication analyses these challenges and provides recommendations to tackle the difficulties that ACP countries face in relation to THB and SoM.

Remittances in ACP Countries :

Key Challenges and Ways Forward, Informing Discussions of the ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
188 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Remittances that migrants send home play an important role in boosting the home country’s development as they are a steady, reliable source of investment that helps millions of individuals and households to raise living standards, improve health and education, provide capital for entrepreneurial pursuits and, in many instances, can foster financial inclusion. This is especially true for the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries, which present some of the highest remittance dependency ratios in the world. Despite multiple efforts and international commitments, challenges still remain. Costs of sending remittances are high, and there are many obstacles to access affordable formal remittance channels.

The publication ACP Countries: Key Challenges and Ways Forward presents the main challenges that ACP countries face today in relation to remittances and provides nine possible ways forward to tackle these difficulties.

Proposal for the creation of an Observatory for Migration between the EU and Latinamerica and the Caribbean

Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Bruselas
Volume, number, page: 
18 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The creation of the Euro-Latin American Migration Observatory (EU-LAC-MO) responds to three pressing needs, specifically: databases of reliable and comparable empirical data; research into the causes and consequences of migration; and analysis of the policies developed by the institutions and their suitability for meeting the requirements. Based on the three key thematic areas of the structured dialogue (links between migration and
development; regular migration; and irregular migration), the functions of the Observatory would be as follows: 1) collation of existing databases and harmonisation of statistical methods; 2) dissemination of existing research and generation of new research to fill existing gaps; 3) analysis of public policy, dissemination of administrative manuals, identification of best practice and creation of performance indicators; and 4) application of international and regional legislation. The organisation could be part of the Euro-Latin American Foundation or of a body such as the IOM or SEGIB (Ibero-American General Secretariat). It should have an International Committee as its consultative and coordinating body, an Executive Committee
for operations and various national coordination branches. The funding for the Executive Committee could come from organisational budgets, from a trust fund or from a mixed system. The resources for projects and activities could be provided by international and national bodies or could come from international cooperation.

More than numbers :

How migration data can deliver real-life benefits for migrants and governments(Final version for World Economic Forum in Davos on 24 January 2018)
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
124 p.
Abstract: 
Migration is a complex global challenge. Around 258 million people are currently estimated to be residing outside their country of birth – a number that has almost tripled in the past 50 years. This has policy implications across a myriad of dimensions ranging from border management to labour market participation and integration.
Decision makers absolutely need one thing to devise appropriate policies: reliable information. Relevant, high-quality dataI is critical for designing, implementing and evaluating policies that can generate substantial economic, social and humanitarian benefits for countries and migrants alike.
Despite widespread consensus on the importance of data to manage migration effectively, the current availability of relevant and reliable data is still very limited. Even when data is available, it is often not used to its full potential (including new data which is being produced in abundance from digital devices). Unfortunately, the current debate focuses far too much on how to get more and better data – a technical debate for experts
in the engine room of politics. This report aims to shift this debate from theory into practice. Decision makers need to be convinced of the value that migration data can deliver. This report is intended to support decision makers in capturing concrete economic, social
and humanitarian benefits in line with targets they choose to prioritize – by leveraging the data that matters.

Migration in the 2030 Agenda

Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
141 p.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
In September 2015, the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda was adopted, and for the first time, migration was included in mainstream global development policy. With the objective of communicating how IOM identifies migration in the 2030 Agenda to stakeholders and the wider public, and to shed light on the complex challenges and opportunities that accompany the migration-related targets, this IOM publication aims to showcase how different areas of migration are addressed in the Sustainable Development Goals.

Migration in Latin America and the Caribbean :

A view from the ICFTU/ORIT
Labour Education on line
Publisher: 
ILO
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
pp.101-108
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Historically speaking, the migratory movements of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean have been closely related to the development of societies in these regions and, more specifically, to economic, social and political imbalances

Making mobility work for adaptation to environmental changes :

Results from the MECLEP global research
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
144 p.
Abstract: 
This report is the final publication of the European Union–funded Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Evidence for Policy (MECLEP) project. The comparative report builds on desk reviews, household surveys and qualitative interviews conducted in the six project countries (Dominican Republic, Haiti, Kenya, Republic of Mauritius, Papua New Guinea and Viet Nam) to assess the extent to which migration, including displacement and planned relocation, can benefit or undermine adaptation to environmental and climate change. Despite the different social and environmental contexts of the six studied countries, migration serves as an adaptation strategy as it often helps migrant households to diversify income and increase their preparedness for future hazards. Conversely, displacement due to natural hazards tends to pose challenges to adaptation as it increases the vulnerability of those displaced. Finally, planned relocation can both represent a successful adaptation strategy and expose the affected population to new vulnerabilities.

In this regard, the report highlights the importance of sharing examples of good practices for locally driven and rights-based planned relocations. Other important policy implications include the need for the following:

(a) Investing in disaster risk reduction and resilience to address environmental displacement;
(b) Integrating migration into urban planning to reduce challenges for migrants and communities of destination; and
(c) Stressing the importance of paying particular attention to gender issues and the needs of vulnerable groups, such as the elderly and trapped population.

In general, the report demonstrates how data and evidence are fundamental in formulating comprehensive policy responses and facilitating the potential positive effects of environmental migration.

Forging Bonds with Emigrants :

Challenges for Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
53 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This document is based on the discussions which developed within the framework of the Seminar “Forging Bonds with Emigrants: Challenges for Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean” (https://www.giga-hamburg.de/forging-bonds-eulac), organised by the EU-LAC Foundation, the GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies and the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF), which took place at the Senate of the city of Hamburg, Germany, on September 18th to 20th, 2017.
Current debates on the subject of migration in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean revolve around the challenges
posed by the increase in migration flows and the integration of immigrants in the States receiving them (Migration Policy Institute 2016). Much less attention is paid to the fact that some countries of these regions are exemplary in terms of the policies they have developed towards their emigrants. To better understand the migratory phenomenon and identify possibilities for international cooperation in this area, it is essential to understand that all immigrants are also emigrants. It is therefore also fundamental to investigate the policies adopted by the countries of origin to create or maintain links with their communities of citizens residing abroad. This article offers insights to understand these policies from a comparative perspective, illustrating good practices and making recommendations to help academia, private stakeholders, civil society and policy-makers to improve these bonds. In addition to the institutional agents, the migrants in the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean are also principal stakeholders in the bi-regional relationship; their presence helps us to appreciate the relevance and necessity of the relationship between these regions and demonstrates the importance of a structured bi-regional dialogue on migration to resolve these challenges.

Brasil y España:

Tregua en la batalla del cruce de fronteras
Publisher: 
CIDOB
City: 
Barcelona
Volume, number, page: 
n. 155, pp.1-2.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Tras años de creciente tensión diplomática entre Brasil y España a causa de los rechazos de ciudadanos en las aduanas aeroportuarias, se ha firmado una tregua en la batalla del cruce de fronteras. Fue necesario que Brasil aplicara la reciprocidad a España para que ésta reaccionase y tomara medidas encaminadas a reparar los daños causados por una política migratoria miope. Brasil es ya la sexta potencia económica mundial y, a pesar de que los efectos de la crisis han ralentizado su crecimiento, es un mercado de enorme potencial y un destino estratégico para las inversiones españolas. Aunque tanto España como la UE hayan reconocido políticamente la pujanza de Brasil durante el último decenio y hayan establecido sendos acuerdos de asociación estratégica, en la práctica han mantenido dinámicas contradictorias. La política migratoria es una de ellas.

Emigrant Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Emigrant Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Publisher: 
FLACSO-Chile
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
358 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Nation-states are no longer contained by their borders. In times of mass migration and ever more dense transnational networks, states of all sizes and all migration profiles reach out to their emigrated citizens in wholly new ways. The variety of policies that target emigrants (“emigrant policies”) is so vast that it seems to have become a new state function. For example, it is well known that states are expanding citizen participation beyond the nation’s boundaries through voting rights and new modalities of representation and that they are opening channels for remittance transfer and offering specific investment opportunities to returning emigrants. However, other, less studied emigrant policies, comprise the symbolic incorporation of emigrants into the nation-state (e.g. through awards celebrating emigrants’ achievements); social service provisions for non-residents (e.g. health and education); and the institutional inclusion of emigrants in consultative bodies, to name just a few.
This book is the first to systematically take stock of the emigrant policies in place across 22 Latin American and Caribbean countries, as of 2015. By covering an entire geographical region and being based on rigorous data-collection, this will be a reference in a literature that has so far centered on a few specific cases. Also, our proposed definition of “emigrant policies” encompasses a wide range of policies that are aimed at emigrants beyond the “usual suspects” analyzed in the extant literature (electoral, citizenship, and economic policies), resulting in 112 different dimensions. This survey of such a broad sample of countries and policy dimensions will allow researchers to theorize and make comparisons on models of emigrant policy on a solid empirical and conceptual base.

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