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The European Higher Education Area in 2020

Bologna Process Implementation Report
Publisher: 
Publications Office of the European Union
City: 
Luxembourg
Category: 
Abstract: 
The history of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), which this report aims to capture - at least in part - is one of extraordinary change. Following the signature of the Bologna Declaration in 1999, a first decade of preparation for the EHEA saw dramatic changes in higher education degree systems, quality assurance and internationalisation. These changes set higher education systems on a path in the same direction, but were contested and even resisted in many parts of Europe. This decade was followed by a period that focused on implementation processes that continues to the present. Despite the complexity of a process involving 48 countries, there have been many positive outcomes as the EHEA has transformed into a real rather than an imagined phenomenon. Its evolution in the future depends on the work that is undertaken now. Some basic facts are worth noting. Countries have continued to join the EHEA throughout the two decades, and student numbers have grown significantly in the vast majority of countries. Today, total student numbers have reached more than 38 million. Of these, the majority of students (56.4 %) are enrolled in first-cycle, bachelor-type study programmes that were viewed sceptically by many at the start of the Bologna Process. Although there are considerable variations between countries, overall public spending on tertiary education relative to GDP has a median value of 0.95 %. In most countries, this figure has either been stable or has decreased during the two decades. Thus, the increase in student demand has not been matched by expenditure on higher education.

Towards a 2030 Vision on the Future of Universities in Europe

Policy Report
Publisher: 
Publications Office of the European Union
City: 
Luxembourg
Category: 
Abstract: 
The study assignment, “Towards a 2030 Vision on the Future of Universities in Europe” was commissioned by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD). It was undertaken by the Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services LLP (CSES), supported a team of high-level experts composed of academics and ex-academics. This study is an independent consultancy study report. The report required close consultation with key stakeholders as part of a participatory process. The Vision and transformation modules were developed in liaison with key stakeholders. Two stakeholder workshops took place in Brussels, followed by a validation webinar. There was then further consultation with key university networks. In addition, a Steering Group consisting of different Commission policy units from DG RTD and DG Education and Culture (DG EAC) actively guided and participated in the consultation process through four Steering Group meetings. Its members provided inputs to ensure that existing EU policy and programming initiatives were reflected, given the need to ensure that future EU support builds on current and previous support. Europe’s university landscape comprises more than 5000 universities, and is characterised by its heterogeneity. The Vision provides an enabling, non-prescriptive framework, which recognises the imperative of maintaining the autonomy of universities, and ensuring the principle of academic freedom. It also embodies the values provided in EU primary legislation, which will underpin the Vision’s implementation. Accordingly, the Vision – and the transformation modules that underpin it – need to be flexible enough to accommodate differences between universities. These include the degree of emphasis on their different missions (e.g. educational, teaching, research and innovation, societal), the extent of their existing contribution and future capacity to contribute to excellent science, and their different disciplinary and inter-disciplinary strengths. Reflecting this diversity, the Vision seeks to support universities and to enable them to autonomously determine their own developmental needs and pathways towards the achievement of the 2030 Vision. Given that the Vision covers a broad range of issues, challenges and opportunities for universities between now and 2030, an effort was made to build a consensus among stakeholders. However, whilst the analysis presented in the report has been closely informed by desk research, stakeholder events and feedback from the university networks, there are divergent viewpoints in some areas. This reflects different viewpoints among different types of universities in Europe and variance in the baseline situation in terms of how strong particular universities are in the research and innovation domain already, and what progress remains. As such, the study represents the authors’ best efforts to establish a degree of consensus on the main priorities for universities in Europe. In parallel with the publication of the revitalised 2020 ERA Communication (September 2020), this report is designed to provide inspiration for the development of an EU policy framework on the future of universities in the fields of research and innovation. The study therefore provides an important starting point to inform the policy debate on a possible follow-up Communication on the Future of Universities in Europe to 2030 in 2021. This could set out in greater detail how Europe might best support and further enable universities’ ongoing transformations, building on the section of the new ERA Communication which addresses this topic. The study team would like to thank all stakeholders for their active participation and engagement in the debate.

The Internal quality assurance as an instrument for the integration and improving of higher education :

analysis of best practices in the European Union and Latin America
City: 
Barcelona
Volume, number, page: 
123 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The aim of this work is to identify the main factors which influence in the implementation and development of Quality Assurance Systems in higher education institutions (HEIs), and compare different regions with similar changes. In such scenary, it becomes a necessary task try to understand the processes that have led to the current education policy as well as the changes in the vision which the European Community (EC) has had on higher education over time. In this vein, higher education and education in general have moved from a marginal location towards the center of the concerns in almost all over the world. So far, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) do not work in a vacuum, but they are an important part of today's knowledge society. Through out a multiple case studies and two indepth case studies (Qualitative Methodology), was analyzed the way in which different internal quality assurance systems (IQAS) have been implemented and developed in six universities, [three from the Euroepan Union (EU) and three from Latin America (LA)]. From the observation of these cases in the field of quality assurance in higher education, we propose the use of some categories that provide an overview of the quality assurance as a policy domain within which policies are formulated. Derived from literature review were identified three big lines of work related with quality assurance issues in higher education; historical analysis; theoretical approaches, and political change. The latter has served as guideline to guide our work within the quality assurance in HEIs, particularly in reference to recurrent practices to evaluate the quality of some of the HEIs activities and the structures associated with these practices (Vlǎsceanu et al. 2007). In this proposal we follow a comparative approach to the political process, the outputs and outcomes of policies that facilitate discovering empirical relationships between variables, particularly in the field of public policies. Far to find answers, the results take us to consider some questions about possible patterns or guidelines associated to processes like the Bologna's for instance and compared with the Latin-American situation. This assignment speaks of quality assurance as a tool for the integration and improvement of higher education, also considers the quality assurance within the policy domain, as well as its different forms of implementation resulting from a national policy or transnational and whose impact is reflected in the actions taken by the HEI's. Even though is not a prescriptive framework, the EFQM excellence model perspective, allows to identifying the basic elements which compose the structure of QA system which is based on the application of the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) towards educational institutions. Whatever the origin of these new activities, no doubt the normative framework derived from the Bologna Declaration has set some trends of accreditation in Europe. It is clear that, in one way or another, this has influenced the development of varied quality assurance outlines in Latin America, as is demonstrated by the development of the QA actions identified on presented cases

European influence on the development of domestic policies in Chile and Mexico :

the case of Higher Education
City: 
Birmingham
Volume, number, page: 
393 p.
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The EU as an ideational actor has a significant impact on non-European countries. This thesis examines the growth of European ideas circulating throughout the field of Latin American Higher Education (HE), as part of the Bologna Process, which has manifested itself in a set of procedures, methods and tools that have contributed to the transformation of Chilean and Mexican HE. This phenomenon requires a rigorous analysis of
European ideational factors present within Normative Power Europe (NPE), not only through a cluster of ideas, norms, principles and values but also through analysing language. The thesis examines such claims, focusing on Chile and Mexico,and argues that the impact of European influences upon received countries is mediated by domestic circumstances. The thesis makes a contribution to both existing understanding of the European Union’s influence over Latin America and Latin American HE, and also seeks to advance upon existing debates around the notion of Normative Power Europe in particular, by illustrating how the NPE literature would benefit from a deeper consideration of the use of language and considering translation processes of receiver countries.

The European Union and MERCOSUR towards Convergence of Their Higher Education Systems

A Comparative Approach
Publisher: 
ISA
City: 
Gothenburg
Volume, number, page: 
pp.455-456.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Tanto la globalización, como los procesos de integración regional, están modificando o afectando de distintas formas a los Sistemas de Educación Superior. El llamado “proceso de Bolonia” (1999) es prueba de ello.Pero si este proceso es consecuencia directa de las políticas de movilidad académicas impulsadas por la Unión Europea durante más de una década, sin embargo, sus amplias implicancias se explican como consecuencia de haber nacido de una iniciativa intergubernamental de los ministros de educación de los principales Estados miembros del bloque. Por otra parte, en
el MERCOSUR, donde la posibilidad de crear un sistema de créditos al estilo de los ECTS fue descartado, se han realizado significativos avances en materia de convergencia de los Sistemas de Educación Superior. Lo característico de ambos casos es que son procesos de carácter voluntario, impulsados por los Estados miembros de ambos bloques y, al mismo así como un conjunto de entrevistas con informantes clave, nos proponemos abordar los orígenes del proceso de Bolonia a partir de elementos de análisis provenientes de la sociología de la acción pública. tiempo, no cuentan con una base jurídica importante que los respalde. Tomando como referencia parte de la literatura académica sobre el tema.

The Bologna Process as a hegemonic tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE)

the case of Chilean and Mexican higher education
Publisher: 
Taylor & Francis Ltd.
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
8:2, pp.247-256.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two ‘hegemonic tools’: the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as a normative power (NPE) on the construction of a common space in higher education in Chile and Mexico, the hegemonic process may, perhaps, prove to be focused on an ‘alternative imperialism’, based on Eurocentric discourse, which could also be called a ‘post‐colonialist’ strategy. This article will seek to show that European influences, exercised by the EU operating as a normative power, are only the ‘tip of the iceberg’ of the hegemonic process. The paper is divided into five parts: following the introduction, a general overview of the Bologna Process opens the discussion of questions of American or European hegemony. After that, I analyse NPE and the ‘ontological quality’ of the EU as a hegemonic power. The empirical cases of European influences, on Chilean and Mexican HE, are analysed in detail in order to show the most significant impacts on their public and university policies. Finally, I offer a view of the Bologna Process as a ‘European hegemonic instrument’ of NPE.

Latin American universities and the Bologna Process

from commercialisation to the Tuning competencies project
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
8:3, pp.443-455
Abstract: 
Through the Tuning-Latin America competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This initiative, however, carries problematic implications. It is an initiative which: (1) simply copies a European model and applies it unchanged to Latin America; (2) opens the door to greater influence by large corporations in the universities; (3) maintains the idea of the pensamiento unico, or single way of thinking, seen now in a single group of competencies that are considered valid for Europe and Latin America, without considering the enormous cultural, social and political diversity of the countries of those regions; (4) offers an educational-pedagogical approach that fragments the professional education of students; and finally (5) has a negative impact on the work and identity of Latin American university professors and students as key players in university transformation. Adapted from the source document.

Higher education cooperation between the European Union, Latin America and the Caribbean

academic cooperation and mobility : bringing the two regions closer
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
87 p.
Abstract: 
This report provides an overview of key figures and impact of EU academic cooperation programmes implemented with Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) since 2007. The report analyses cooperation under the Programmes Erasmus Mundus, ALFA, Edulink and the Marie Curie Actions (2007-2013). Similar opportunities for mobility of students, staff and researchers, and for institutional cooperation between the two regions continue under the Erasmus+ programme and the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions (2014-2020). More information about how to apply to Erasmus+ is included in Annex 1.

ALFA III

Supporting social equality and integration between Latin America and the European Union
Publisher: 
European Commission
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
26 p.
Abstract: 
ALFA III is a cooperation programme between the European Union (EU) and Latin America (LA) that promotes higher education (HE) as a means of social and economic development and struggle against social inequality.

European Union regional cooperation with Latin America and the Caribbean

Publisher: 
European Commission
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
2 p.
Abstract: 
The EU has over 20 years of experience of regional cooperation with Latin America. Regional programmes have been the main tool to strengthen links between countries within the region, promote sub-regional integration, and foster bi-regional cooperation. 18 countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela) can take part in the regional programmes, under the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI). Europe has strong historic and cultural ties with the Caribbean region, and a long tradition of close cooperation. The EU’s relations with Caribbean countries are based on political relations, trade and development funding at both national and regional levels. The Africa, Caribbean and Pacifi c (ACP) - EU Cotonou Agreement signed in 2000 by 15 Caribbean nations, is the framework for cooperation. It is complemented by the 2008 Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with CARIFORUM (the Forum of the Caribbean Group of ACP) and the 2012 Joint Caribbean EU Partnership Strategy. The Caribbean region represents the following countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago. The region also includes 17 territories with direct links to EU Member States (four French ‘outermost regions’; and thirteen ‘overseas territories’– six British, six Dutch and one French territory).

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