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Foreign trade policy

Trade :

The Undervalued Driver of Regional Integration in Latin America
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.5 , pp.1-10.
Abstract: 
Many regional organisations in Latin America are currently in crisis. Trade agreements, however, have made progress in the region. Today, 80 per cent of intra-regional trade is already under preferences. In March 2017 several international financial organisations – the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) – each independently proposed the creation of a Latin American and Caribbean free trade area

Trade and development nexus :

reflections on the performance of trade in goods under the CARIFORUM-European Union Partnership Agreement A CARIFORUM perspective
Publisher: 
ECLAC
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
54 p.
Abstract: 
Given the asymmetry in the levels of development and capacity which exist between the EU and CARIFORUM States, the architects of the CARIFORUM-European Union (EU) Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) anticipated the need for review and monitoring of the impacts of
implementation. Article 5 and other provisions in the Agreement therefore specifically mandate that monitoring be undertaken to ensure that the Agreement benefits a wide cross-section of the population in member countries.The paper seeks to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of the EPA on CARIFORUM countries. In so doing, it highlights some critical information and implementation gaps and challenges that have emerged during the implementation process. The analysis however, is restricted to goods trade. The services sector will be the subject of a separate report.
The paper draws on a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses. While the paper undertakes a CARIFORUM-wide analysis for the most part, five CARIFORUM member states including Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Lucia are examined more closely in some instances. These economies were selected by virtue of economic structure and development constraints, as a representative subset of CARIFORUM, which comprises the CARICOM membership as well as the Dominican Republic.

There Is No Reciprocity Latin America and Europe :

Unequal Entanglements
Publisher: 
International Research Network on Interdependent Inequalities in Latin America
City: 
Berlin
Volume, number, page: 
n.91, pp.1-22
Category: 
Abstract: 
This paper presents the transformations of Latin American-European relations over time as an interdependent unequal relationship. These relations have been shaped by exports of commodities, including the enrichment of European foodways with indigenous Latin American crops and the environmentally destructive extraction of natural resources and commercial export agriculture. The transformation under colonialism led not only to the settlement of Europeans in Latin America but also to the Atlantic slave trade. The consequence of these relations of domination even today is a limited acknowledgement of Latin America as being more than an extension of Europe. With the end of European immigration to and from Latin America, the role of the United States has grown instead, and increasingly developments in Latin America have also taken on their own dynamics, decoupled from Europe. In the coming decades, relations with China which have grown rapidly in commerce and commodity exports are likely to transform the role of Europe in the region yet again.

The trade chapter of the European Union association agreement with Central America

Study
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
65 p.
Abstract: 
The EU Central America Association Agreement is an example of the successful completion of a region-to-region agreement and therefore in line with the EU’s aim of promoting regional integration in other regions through trade and association agreements.
For the EU, economic welfare gains and employment effects from the trade chapter of the Agreement are because of the relative small size of the Central American market expected to be negligible. However, EU exporters will benefit from lower tariffs on manufactured goods especially in automobiles. For the Central American countries (CA), there is the potential of significant gains, but these are not evenly spread. The fact that
CA exporters already benefited from zero tariffs on almost all exports to the EU under the extended Generalised System of Preferences (GSP+) means that there are relatively few sectors that will have enhanced access with the exception of bananas, raw cane sugar and shrimps. Above all, the Agreement will provide legally secure access to the EU market. The Agreement also tackles cross border services and establishment, technical
barriers to trade (TBT), sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) issues as well as trade remedies in the shape of anti-dumping, countervailing duties or multilateral safeguards. The provisions on intellectual property rights include Geographic Indications (GIs). The trade chapter furthermore contains a human rights clause which stipulates that the parties must ensure that human rights are respected within their jurisdiction. Furthermore there
are provisions on sustainable development.

The environmental and economic benefits for the European Union of strengthening co-operation with the Latin American region in the field of environment

Final Report
Publisher: 
Publications Office
City: 
Luxemburg
Volume, number, page: 
63 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Environment is receiving increased attention in the EU cooperation agenda, also in light of the EU’s objective of reducing its global environmental footprint. In this context, the main purpose of this study is to ascertain the economic and environmental benefits which could accrue to the EU from strengthening co-operation with Latin America in the field of environment. Based on an analysis of the main drivers of demand of environmental goods and services (EGS) and market conditions (including barriers to trade and investment), as well as on the creation of market development scenarios, the study shows that increased co-operation with Latin America can offer significant business opportunities for EU companies operating in the environmental market, particularly in the water and waste management sectors. Case studies for different countries (Mexico, Chile, Brazil and Colombia) assess opportunities in different segments. The study also highlights the scope for reduction of the EU environmental footprint linked to the consumption of commodities imported from Latin America. Finally, the study identifies pragmatic policy recommendations, highlighting the need to make efforts to reduce barriers to trade and investment in EGS, improving knowledge base of EU business and reducing EU’s environmental footprint.

Social Standards in Bilateral and Regional Trade and Investment Agreements

Instruments, Enforcement, and Policy Options for Trade Unions
Publisher: 
FES
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
n.16, pp.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Despite efforts of the ILO, no viable multilateral labor rights regime has been established. At the same time, an increasingly global economy requires such regimes in order to prevent ruinous competition between countries competing in similar product markets on the basis of a similar set of production factors. Particularly if cheap labor is one of these factors, systematic violations of labor rights may be used as source of competitive advantages, even if such advantages are marginal. So-called ‘core labor rights’ can enable domestic actors to fight for improved standards.
Unilateral labor rights provisions do exist in the Generalized System of Preferences of the United States and the European Union, and have been applied with some success. However, attempts of the international labor movement to establish more enforceable multilateral labor rights provisions at the WTO have failed so far. Civil society actors have therefore stepped up their efforts to push individual transnational
enterprises to adopt so-called voluntary codes of conduct, with mixed (and limited) success.
A more recent strategy is the inclusion of labor rights provisions in bilateral or regional trade and investment agreements. With the multilateral trade process stalling, the governments of developed countries are moving toward bilateral and regional negotiations, where they have more bargaining power. Also, the value of unilateral trade preference schemes has decreased due to multilateral liberalization. Labor rights provisions in bilateral or regional agreements may thus be seen as a promis-ing strategy for improving compliance regarding core labor rights.
Specific labor rights provisions have been included in several agreements negotiated by the U.S., and more general provisions are to be found in agreements of the EU. Most U.S. provisions are effectively limited to the commitment of parties to enforce domestic labor law. However, there are notable exceptions in the agreements with Cambodia and Jordan, which could serve as examples for future labor rights provisions. In EU bilateral agreements, the focus is clearly on general human rights, development issues, technical cooperation and political dialogue, rather than on specific and enforceable labor rights provisions.
In addition to the problematic subordination of labor rights decisions to foreign policy objectives, there are two main problems for even the strongest labor rights provisions: First, their effective enforcement relies on strong local actors; yet it is the absence or weakness of such actors that makes external pressure necessary in the first place. Second, labor relations are among the most political domestic institutions, and resistance to external pressure can be expected not just in cases of systematic violations of core labor rights.

Quantitative assessment of a free trade agreement between MERCOSUR and the European Union

Publisher: 
ECLAC
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
74 p.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the direct and indirect impacts of an FTA (free trade agreement) between MERCOSUR and the
EU (European Union). MERCOSUR is a regional trade agreement between Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay, created in 1991. Venezuela signed a membership agreement in 2006, but it has not yet been ratified by the Brazilian and Paraguayan parliaments. In our study, we consider that Venezuela is not part of MERCOSUR. The aim of this regional treaty is to support free trade and the free movement of goods, people and currency. By European Union, we mean the 27 countries which are linked by their belonging to the European Communities

Multipolarity and the Future of Regionalism :

Latin America and Beyond
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.264
Category: 
Abstract: 
This paper inquires into the effects of an emerging multipolar world on the international institution of regionalism. While IR scholarship has been making a strong case for the regionalization of world politics since the 1990s, the fact that most of the rising powers are also the sole regional powers of their home regions has led some scholars to argue that the advent of multipolarity can only strengthen this general trend toward a more regionalized international order. In this contribution, I challenge these arguments by proposing an alternative way of thinking about how ultipolarity is developing. The implications of this interpretation are that the emergence of multipolarity may actually generate powerful centrifugal forces within regions, which would have adverse effects on the known forms of regionalism that regional groupings have been implementing thus far. This applies particularly to the global South, where intraregional economic interdependencies tend to be weak. The proposition is tested by examining empirical findings across several regions and through a case study

Modernising EU-Chile trade relations

City: 
Brussels
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Currently, EU-Chile relations are governed by the 2002 EU-Chile Association Agreement (AA). The EU would like to modernise the AA's trade pillar to keep pace with new global trade patterns and the ambitious provisions of more recent trade agreements. During the September plenary, the European Parliament is expected to adopt recommendations on the future negotiations on this modernisation. It is also asked to give its consent to the conclusion of a separate EU-Chile agreement on trade in organic products and the AA's third additional protocol to take account of Croatia's EU accession.

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