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Multipolarity and the Future of Regionalism :

Latin America and Beyond
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.264
Category: 
Abstract: 
This paper inquires into the effects of an emerging multipolar world on the international institution of regionalism. While IR scholarship has been making a strong case for the regionalization of world politics since the 1990s, the fact that most of the rising powers are also the sole regional powers of their home regions has led some scholars to argue that the advent of multipolarity can only strengthen this general trend toward a more regionalized international order. In this contribution, I challenge these arguments by proposing an alternative way of thinking about how ultipolarity is developing. The implications of this interpretation are that the emergence of multipolarity may actually generate powerful centrifugal forces within regions, which would have adverse effects on the known forms of regionalism that regional groupings have been implementing thus far. This applies particularly to the global South, where intraregional economic interdependencies tend to be weak. The proposition is tested by examining empirical findings across several regions and through a case study

Modernising EU-Chile trade relations

City: 
Brussels
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Currently, EU-Chile relations are governed by the 2002 EU-Chile Association Agreement (AA). The EU would like to modernise the AA's trade pillar to keep pace with new global trade patterns and the ambitious provisions of more recent trade agreements. During the September plenary, the European Parliament is expected to adopt recommendations on the future negotiations on this modernisation. It is also asked to give its consent to the conclusion of a separate EU-Chile agreement on trade in organic products and the AA's third additional protocol to take account of Croatia's EU accession.

Mexico :

Economic indicators and trade with EU
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Mexico's economy is the 15th largest in the world (in terms of GDP) and the second largest in Latin America, after Brazil. It is currently classified as an upper middle-income economy by the World Bank, and is a member of the WTO, the OECD and the G20. The EU is Mexico's third-largest trading partner after the US and China, and its second biggest export market after the US. Our infographic, produced in close cooperation with GlobalStat, provides a quick and useful overview of Mexico's main economic ...

EU trade with Latin America and the Caribbean :

Overview and figures
Publisher: 
35 p.
City: 
Brussels
Category: 
Abstract: 
This publication provides an overview of trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings. The EU has fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a multiparty trade agreement with three members of the Andean Community (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), and bilateral agreements with Chile and Mexico. Since November 2017, a new agreement governing trade relations with Cuba has also been provisionally applied. In addition, the EU is currently modernising its agreements with Mexico (with which it has reached an 'agreement in principle') and Chile. The EU also has framework agreements with Mercosur and its individual members (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The agreement with the former will be replaced, once the ongoing negotiations on an EU-Mercosur association agreement have been completed. This publication provides recent data on trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings, compares the main agreements governing trade relations that are already in place, and analyses the rationale behind the ongoing negotiations on the EU-Mercosur, EU-Mexico and EU-Chile agreements. This is a revised and updated edition of a publication from October 2017 by Gisela Grieger and Roderick Harte, PE 608.793.

Decoupling Trade from Politics:

The EU and Region-Building in the Andes
City: 
Roma
Volume, number, page: 
18 p.
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
In its external relations, the EU advances regional cooperation as a successful means of achieving peace and prosperity. In doing so, the EU promotes its own model as the most successful case of regional integration. A wide-reaching set of instruments, spanning from trade to political dialogue and aid, is used to promote regional cooperation and integration. Noneheless, regional organisations supported by the EU are far from accomplishing their set objectives. Using as a test case the Andean Community, the oldest Latin American regional organisation and a prominent case of EU support for regional integration, this paper examines the reasons behind the EU’s lack of impact in promoting regional integration. Stemming from this analysis, the paper proposes a recalibration of EU policy by decoupling trade relations from political engagement and by increasing support for physical and visible integration as opposed to formal institutions detached from the perceived needs of the public.

Brazil:

economic indicators and trade with EU
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Bruselas
Volume, number, page: 
2 p.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Brazil is the biggest economy in Latin America, representing one third of the EU´s total trade with the region. Our infographics, done in close cooperation with GlobalStats, provides a quick and useful overview of its main economic and trade data.

ACP-EU relations beyond 2020

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
2p.
Abstract: 
Twenty-eight European Union (EU) Member States and 78 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries are legally bound by the provisions of the Cotonou Agreement, with its three intertwined pillars: a political dimension, development strategies and economic and trade cooperation. In
February 2020, the Cotonou Agreement will expire and a new relationship has to be designed, taking into account the achievements and shortcomings of the agreement. The EU position is expected by May 2017. The European Parliament's consent will be required before a new agreement is concluded

The European Union’s Latin America policy

A study of Foreign Policy Change and Coordination
City: 
London
Volume, number, page: 
302 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This thesis explores the evolution of the European Union’s (EU) Latin America policy through an analysis of factors internal to the EU’s foreign policy decision-making system. Its policy towards the region has changed in important ways over time and appears to have come to be more and more incoherent. Adapting existing Foreign Policy Analysis frameworks to the specific context of the EU’s foreign policy, this thesis seeks to understand how factors of bureaucratic politics shape the EU’s foreign policy towards third actors. It is hypothesized that where an analytical perspective which evaluates the EU’s increased policy incoherence towards Latin America as the result of rational decision-making is not satisfactory, bureaucratic politics need to be considered instead. Under this perspective, the EU’s policy incoherence is influenced by policy inertia arising out of previous commitments, the divergence of views between different internal EU actors, the autonomy of these to take decisions without prior consultation or coordination with others, and lastly the complexity and duration of EU foreign policy decision-making processes themselves. This research framework is then applied empirically by analysing the EU’s negotiations for international agreements with partners in the Latin American
region, and particularly those with regional organizations since the 1990s. This thesis finds that despite attempts to strengthen foreign policy coordination and coherence in the EU over time, the coherence of its Latin America policy has indeed been affected by bureaucratic politics arising out of factors such as changes to the internal organization of the European Commission or the disruption of established coordination mechanisms
through the Treaty of Lisbon. The findings contribute to our understanding of the evolution of EU-Latin American relations, on-going debates on the study of interregionalism, as well as more generally to the literature on EU foreign policy-making.

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