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Foreign Policy

The rise of biofuels in IR

the case of Brazilian foreign policy towards the EU
City: 
London
Volume, number, page: 
37:5, pp.902-916
Abstract: 
Biofuels are a growing alternative energy source. In a context of their growing global consumption, Brazil has shown particular interest in the European market. This paper analyses Brazilian foreign policy on biofuels towards the EU during Lula da Silva’s administration (2003–10). It examines the emergence of biofuels at a global level, the main guidelines of Brazilian foreign policy, Brazilian environmental foreign policy and, finally, the Brazilian political response to changes in European law.

Emigrant Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Emigrant Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Publisher: 
FLACSO-Chile
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
358 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Nation-states are no longer contained by their borders. In times of mass migration and ever more dense transnational networks, states of all sizes and all migration profiles reach out to their emigrated citizens in wholly new ways. The variety of policies that target emigrants (“emigrant policies”) is so vast that it seems to have become a new state function. For example, it is well known that states are expanding citizen participation beyond the nation’s boundaries through voting rights and new modalities of representation and that they are opening channels for remittance transfer and offering specific investment opportunities to returning emigrants. However, other, less studied emigrant policies, comprise the symbolic incorporation of emigrants into the nation-state (e.g. through awards celebrating emigrants’ achievements); social service provisions for non-residents (e.g. health and education); and the institutional inclusion of emigrants in consultative bodies, to name just a few.
This book is the first to systematically take stock of the emigrant policies in place across 22 Latin American and Caribbean countries, as of 2015. By covering an entire geographical region and being based on rigorous data-collection, this will be a reference in a literature that has so far centered on a few specific cases. Also, our proposed definition of “emigrant policies” encompasses a wide range of policies that are aimed at emigrants beyond the “usual suspects” analyzed in the extant literature (electoral, citizenship, and economic policies), resulting in 112 different dimensions. This survey of such a broad sample of countries and policy dimensions will allow researchers to theorize and make comparisons on models of emigrant policy on a solid empirical and conceptual base.

Governing Cocaine Supply and Organized Crime from Latin America and the Caribbean

The Changing Security Logics in European Union External Policy
Publisher: 
Springer
City: 
Atlanta
Volume, number, page: 
22:1, pp.1-18
Abstract: 
The logics of the European Union’s policy and practices against narcotic drugs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have undergone a substantial shift the past decade: from development to security. Based on an empirical mapping of the EU’s drug-related projects in LAC, this article argues that an ‘integrated and balanced’ approach to drugs policy is being replaced by a bifurcation between the broader domains of development policy and security policy. Questions are raised as to how the EU’s projects on development and security might counteract one another, and how the Union’s programme aimed at dismantling transnational organized crime along the cocaine trafficking routes to Europe might have unintended consequences. While keeping in mind the shifting tectonics of the international drug prohibition consensus, the article goes on to analyze the increasingly salient security rationale in EU external drugs policy against the backdrop of the EU’s emerging role as a global security actor. In doing so, it touches upon the intrinsic tensions between human rights and (supra) national security.

The European Union’s Latin America policy

A study of Foreign Policy Change and Coordination
City: 
London
Volume, number, page: 
302 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This thesis explores the evolution of the European Union’s (EU) Latin America policy through an analysis of factors internal to the EU’s foreign policy decision-making system. Its policy towards the region has changed in important ways over time and appears to have come to be more and more incoherent. Adapting existing Foreign Policy Analysis frameworks to the specific context of the EU’s foreign policy, this thesis seeks to understand how factors of bureaucratic politics shape the EU’s foreign policy towards third actors. It is hypothesized that where an analytical perspective which evaluates the EU’s increased policy incoherence towards Latin America as the result of rational decision-making is not satisfactory, bureaucratic politics need to be considered instead. Under this perspective, the EU’s policy incoherence is influenced by policy inertia arising out of previous commitments, the divergence of views between different internal EU actors, the autonomy of these to take decisions without prior consultation or coordination with others, and lastly the complexity and duration of EU foreign policy decision-making processes themselves. This research framework is then applied empirically by analysing the EU’s negotiations for international agreements with partners in the Latin American
region, and particularly those with regional organizations since the 1990s. This thesis finds that despite attempts to strengthen foreign policy coordination and coherence in the EU over time, the coherence of its Latin America policy has indeed been affected by bureaucratic politics arising out of factors such as changes to the internal organization of the European Commission or the disruption of established coordination mechanisms
through the Treaty of Lisbon. The findings contribute to our understanding of the evolution of EU-Latin American relations, on-going debates on the study of interregionalism, as well as more generally to the literature on EU foreign policy-making.

The European Union and Latin America

‘Transformative power Europe’ versus the realities of economic interests
City: 
Cambridge
Volume, number, page: 
28:4, pp.621-640
Abstract: 
Relations between the European Union (EU) and regional subgroups in Latin America (Mercosur, the Andean Community and Central America) are clear examples of ‘pure interregionalism’ and provide evidence of the EU's active promotion of regional integration. Within the context of these cases, this article explores what type of international power the EU wields, how interregionalism is embedded in that power, and how it is deployed. Combining strands of literature on EU–Latin American relations, interregionalism, EU external policy and power provides a framework within which interregionalism can be understood as an important normative and practical tool for the EU's external power projection. Drawing on official documentation and interviews with key individuals, the paper highlights the EU's articulation of power in interregional relations and reflects upon its mixed success. It concludes that, while imperial qualities and aspirations can be observed in the EU's penchant for interregionalism, the transformative power of the EU remains limited.

Expert Interviews and Triangulation

Foreign Policy towards Latin
Expert Interviews and Triangulation: Foreign Policy towards Latin America in Europe
Publisher: 
SAGE
City: 
London
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
This case study is based on a PhD project carried out between 2008 and 2012. The study sought to uncover the origins of EU Member States' divergent Latin America policies. Such policies continue to hamper European Union attempts to create a more unified European approach towards Latin America. Spain, the United Kingdom and Germany were chosen as influential Member States endowed with distinct national policies towards Latin America in order to analyse the origins of such differences. The project began by carefully mapping the different levels of policy activity towards the region and then selected two cases for in-depth study: development cooperation and the interaction of national policy with the European Union's strategy. In a study of contemporary foreign policy, it was vital to speak with policy-makers. I interviewed national diplomats from all three countries under study, as well as EU officials and Latin American diplomats based in Brussels. There are several considerations that must be taken into account when embarking upon expert interviewing. This case study outlines how I set up the empirical section of my study to mitigate some of the pitfalls associated with elite interviewing, including accessibility of interviewees, strategic rhetoric, unreliability and unwillingness.

Contemporary Latin American thinking on International Relations

theoretical, conceptual and methodological contributions
Publisher: 
IBRI
City: 
Brasilia
Volume, number, page: 
59:1, pp.1-32.
Abstract: 
This article analyses recent productions of Latin American thinking on international affairs. The reviewed cases and examples are interrelated, for they are explanatory and interpretative abstractions of processes and practices in the international field, characterized by a description of formulations, concepts and methodological contributions. The common feature of these dimensions is the will of their formulators to explain their national and regional political realities from their own perspectives. Recent contributions offer potential for generalizations from national cases. They account for new realities that may impact on the international and regional system of international affairs

The Brazil-European Union strategic partnership, from Lula to Dilma Rousseff

a shift of focus
Publisher: 
Instituto Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais
City: 
Rio de Janeiro
Volume, number, page: 
60:1, pp. 1-17
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The article concentrates on the role which the strategic partnership with the European Union played in Brazilian foreign policy from 2007 to 2015, and the shift of focus that took place during the Lula and Dilma Rousseff administrations.
It analyses the progress of such strategic partnership and the exchanges persector carried out within related frameworks. It also discusses and segregates the so-called sector dialogues into two types and argues that, since the beginning of the Rousseff administration, multilateral exchanges encountered growing obstacles to becoming successful, whereas bilateral dialogues found increasingly favorable ground.

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