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The Bologna Process as a hegemonic tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE)

the case of Chilean and Mexican higher education
Publisher: 
Taylor & Francis Ltd.
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
8:2, pp.247-256.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two ‘hegemonic tools’: the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as a normative power (NPE) on the construction of a common space in higher education in Chile and Mexico, the hegemonic process may, perhaps, prove to be focused on an ‘alternative imperialism’, based on Eurocentric discourse, which could also be called a ‘post‐colonialist’ strategy. This article will seek to show that European influences, exercised by the EU operating as a normative power, are only the ‘tip of the iceberg’ of the hegemonic process. The paper is divided into five parts: following the introduction, a general overview of the Bologna Process opens the discussion of questions of American or European hegemony. After that, I analyse NPE and the ‘ontological quality’ of the EU as a hegemonic power. The empirical cases of European influences, on Chilean and Mexican HE, are analysed in detail in order to show the most significant impacts on their public and university policies. Finally, I offer a view of the Bologna Process as a ‘European hegemonic instrument’ of NPE.

Global Europe, Guilty!

Contesting EU neoliberal governance for Latin America and the Caribbean
Publisher: 
Taylor & Francis Ltd.
City: 
London
Volume, number, page: 
31:1, pp.123-139
Abstract: 
This article examines bi-regional governance between the European Union and Latin American and Caribbean countries as a source of social resistance and contestation. The analysis focuses on the contributions of a bottom-up and informal mechanism of litigation, the Permanent People's Tribunals against European Multinationals and Neoliberalism, to cognitive justice and as a challenge to the notion of neoliberal governance. It questions the underlying assumptions regarding global/regional governance and resistance in the literature on international relations and international political economy, and the type of development and regionalism promoted by EU institutions and governments in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article calls for a problematisation of the resistance that is mobilised through the Tribunals, which is not free of tensions but, nonetheless, contributes through practices of cognitive justice to unveiling the fragmented, and hence, contested, nature of EU neoliberal governance for Latin America and the Caribbean countries.

Latin American universities and the Bologna Process

from commercialisation to the Tuning competencies project
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
8:3, pp.443-455
Abstract: 
Through the Tuning-Latin America competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This initiative, however, carries problematic implications. It is an initiative which: (1) simply copies a European model and applies it unchanged to Latin America; (2) opens the door to greater influence by large corporations in the universities; (3) maintains the idea of the pensamiento unico, or single way of thinking, seen now in a single group of competencies that are considered valid for Europe and Latin America, without considering the enormous cultural, social and political diversity of the countries of those regions; (4) offers an educational-pedagogical approach that fragments the professional education of students; and finally (5) has a negative impact on the work and identity of Latin American university professors and students as key players in university transformation. Adapted from the source document.

Scientific and technological cooperation on socio-economic and environmental challenges between Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
17 p.
Abstract: 
EU-LAC Summits since Madrid in 2002 have promoted the development of a shared Knowledge Area. European Research Framework Programmes are among the principal instruments for its development. In the 6th Research Framework Programme (FP6: 2002-2006) alone,some 221 collaborative scientific projects mobilised 538 teams from Latin America (529) and the Caribbean (9) and 2,679 European (and other non-Latin American) teams with a total value of more than €1.3 billion (EC contribution more than €700 million). Many of these address directly the topics forming the basis of dialogue at the level of the 2008 Lima Summit between Heads of State and Government from the EU-LAC regions.
Under the 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7: 2007-2013) international cooperation is intended to be more substantial, better coordinated and integrated by opening all its components to international cooperation and a high percentage of research opportunities are directly relevant for improved transitions towards sustainable development and a better grasp of the socio-economic conditions for change. It also creates an enabling framework for such cooperation through measures on scientific and technological policy dialogue, promotion and activities to improve coordination of international S&T cooperation of EU Member States.
The present leaflet shows a small sample of concrete collaborations contributing to making the EU-LAC Knowledge Area a reality.
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