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Trade and development nexus :

reflections on the performance of trade in goods under the CARIFORUM-European Union Partnership Agreement A CARIFORUM perspective
Volume, number, page: 
54 p.
Given the asymmetry in the levels of development and capacity which exist between the EU and CARIFORUM States, the architects of the CARIFORUM-European Union (EU) Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) anticipated the need for review and monitoring of the impacts of
implementation. Article 5 and other provisions in the Agreement therefore specifically mandate that monitoring be undertaken to ensure that the Agreement benefits a wide cross-section of the population in member countries.The paper seeks to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of the EPA on CARIFORUM countries. In so doing, it highlights some critical information and implementation gaps and challenges that have emerged during the implementation process. The analysis however, is restricted to goods trade. The services sector will be the subject of a separate report.
The paper draws on a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses. While the paper undertakes a CARIFORUM-wide analysis for the most part, five CARIFORUM member states including Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Lucia are examined more closely in some instances. These economies were selected by virtue of economic structure and development constraints, as a representative subset of CARIFORUM, which comprises the CARICOM membership as well as the Dominican Republic.

Human rights provisions in Economic Partnership Agreements in light of the expiry of the Cotonou Agreement in 2020

Volume, number, page: 
45 p.
The study considers the options for suspending obligations under the EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in connection with violations of human rights, democratic principles or the rule of law following the expiry of the Cotonou Agreement in 2020. It outlines the functioning of the human rights clause in the Cotonou Agreement, before considering the possibilities for suspending the EPAs under their own provisions, or for other reasons in international law, such as countermeasures. Next, it discusses how any post-2020 arrangements can best continue the existing mechanisms for human rights conditionality set out in the Cotonou Agreement. In connection with this, this study proposes certain suggestions for improving future versions of human rights clauses, and considers whether there are legal obstacles to the invocation of this clause under general international law, principally under WTO law. The study concludes with a set of
comments and recommendations.

Understanding the CARIFORUM-European Union Economic Partnership Agreement

On 15 October 2008, the Caribbean became the first region among the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)
group of countries to sign a ‘full’ Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU).
Although the EPA process has generated widespread critical commentary, few analysts have stopped to
consider the motives of individual ACP countries and regions in their approach to the talks. In this paper we
consider the question of motives in relation to the CARIFORUM-EU EPA. Specifically, it asks why did
Caribbean trade negotiators feel it necessary or desirable to sign a ‘full’ EPA, containing numerous
provisions not actually mandated by the WTO, when the rest of the ACP was content to sign far less
ambitious ‘goods only’ interim agreements? In order to address this question, the paper goes beyond the
extant EU-ACP trade literature to draw insights from wider International Political Economy (IPE) scholarship,
which has analysed the actions of developing countries in relation to a whole range of ‘WTO-plus’ North-
South regional and bilateral FTAs. On this basis, the paper stands back from the complex details of the
agreement to analyse its wider significance, especially in terms the presumed trade-off between the
immediate economic benefits of improved and more secure market access against the longer-term costs of
sacrificing the regulatory autonomy, or policy space, deemed necessary to pursue the type of trade and
industrial policies deployed successfully in the past by both developed and (some) developing countries. Put
simply, the paper seeks to ascertain what ultimately the Caribbean gained from the EPA negotiations and at
what cost.

The EU-CARIFORUM EPA: Regulatory and Policy Changes and Lessons for Other ACP Countries

St. Augustin
Volume, number, page: 
1:3, pp. 5-29
This analytical note assesses the state of play of EPA implementation in the CARIFORUM region. It shows that the regulatory, legislative and policy changes necessary for EPA implementation in the areas of trade in goods and services are at varying stages of implementation among member states, with many countries being very far from fully implementing the country is near completion with regards to these changes. A major reason for the slow implementation is that CARIFORUM countries are not receiving the financial and technical support which was anticipated for implementation in 2008 when the Agreement was signed. They are therefore facing debilitating financial and human resource constraints. To compound their already weak financial positions, the European Union’s proposed differentiation policy will further reduce bilateral financial assistance to these countries.
CARIFORUM states will therefore continue to strain under the weight of EPA implementation, which will only further delay the process by
way of the regulatory and policy changes necessary for the EPA to be fully implemented, and therefore fully operational.

EC-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement: Services and Investment Commitments

International Trade Centre
Business guide focusing on the key features of the services and investment commitments within
EC-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement – part 1 deals with services and investment
commitments made by the European Community (EC) granting market access for Caribbean
businesses; describes commitments on a sector-by-sector basis, identifying new investment and
export opportunities, and the applicable limitations; part 2 outlines trade in services and investment
opportunities available, and limitations applicable, to European businesses for each sector in
individual Caribbean countries.


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