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Environmental policy

The environmental and economic benefits for the European Union of strengthening co-operation with the Latin American region in the field of environment

Final Report
Publisher: 
Publications Office
City: 
Luxemburg
Volume, number, page: 
63 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Environment is receiving increased attention in the EU cooperation agenda, also in light of the EU’s objective of reducing its global environmental footprint. In this context, the main purpose of this study is to ascertain the economic and environmental benefits which could accrue to the EU from strengthening co-operation with Latin America in the field of environment. Based on an analysis of the main drivers of demand of environmental goods and services (EGS) and market conditions (including barriers to trade and investment), as well as on the creation of market development scenarios, the study shows that increased co-operation with Latin America can offer significant business opportunities for EU companies operating in the environmental market, particularly in the water and waste management sectors. Case studies for different countries (Mexico, Chile, Brazil and Colombia) assess opportunities in different segments. The study also highlights the scope for reduction of the EU environmental footprint linked to the consumption of commodities imported from Latin America. Finally, the study identifies pragmatic policy recommendations, highlighting the need to make efforts to reduce barriers to trade and investment in EGS, improving knowledge base of EU business and reducing EU’s environmental footprint.

Germany–Latin America :

Fostering Strategic Alliances for a Global Energy Transition
Publisher: 
KAS-Peru
City: 
Lima
Volume, number, page: 
5p.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Latin America is of strategic importance for Germany’s international sustainable energy policies. Sustainable energy technologies not only have a large potential market in Latin America but also offer opportunities to address some of the region’s pressing issues. Moreover, Latin America offers interesting learning opportunities. In several Latin American countries, electricity supply has traditionally been based on renewable energies – namely hydropower. In some Latin American countries, bioenergy has become an important pillar of electricity and fuel supply. New renewable energy technologies such as wind and solar energy have recently gained ground. However, the region also has large oil and gas reserves. With growing energy demand, the expansion of new renewable energies goes hand in hand with rising demand for conventional energy. Moreover, Latin America is a strong voice in global efforts to mitigate climate change. The region is exposed to some of the most severe effects of climate change in the form of droughts, glacial retreat and rising sea levels. Droughts increasingly pose an energy security challenge in Latin American countries that are highly reliant on hydropower. Three Latin American countries are of particular relevance for German efforts to build alliances for a global energy transition: Germany has established bilateral energy partnerships with the regional heavyweights Brazil and Mexico, while Argentina has taken over the G20 presidency from Germany in 2018 and will thus play a central role in shaping the global energy agenda throughout its presidency.

Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean:

policy options and research priorities
Publisher: 
Springer Open
City: 
London
Volume, number, page: 
24:14, pp.1-39.
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Although climate change is filled with uncertainties, a broad set of policies proposed to address this issue can be grouped in two categories: mitigation and adaptation. Developed countries that are better prepared to cope with climate change have stressed the importance of mitigation, which ideally requires a global agreement that is still lacking. This paper uses a theoretical framework to argue that in the absence of a binding international agreement on mitigation, Latin America should focus mainly on adaptation to cope with the consequences of climate change. This is not a recommendation that such economies indulge in free-riding. Instead, it is based on cost–benefit considerations, all else being equal. Only in the presence of a global binding agreement can the region hope to exploit its comparative advantage in the conservation and management of forests, which are a large carbon sink. The decision of which policies to implement should depend on the results of a thorough cost–benefit analysis of competing projects, yet very little is known or has been carried out in this area to date. Research should be directed toward cost–benefit analysis of alternative climate change policies. Policymakers should compare other investments that are also pressing in the region, such as interventions to reduce water and air pollution, and determine which will render the greatest benefits.

The rise of biofuels in IR

the case of Brazilian foreign policy towards the EU
City: 
London
Volume, number, page: 
37:5, pp.902-916
Abstract: 
Biofuels are a growing alternative energy source. In a context of their growing global consumption, Brazil has shown particular interest in the European market. This paper analyses Brazilian foreign policy on biofuels towards the EU during Lula da Silva’s administration (2003–10). It examines the emergence of biofuels at a global level, the main guidelines of Brazilian foreign policy, Brazilian environmental foreign policy and, finally, the Brazilian political response to changes in European law.

The environment as a strategic priority in the European Union–Brazil partnership

is the EU behaving as a normative power or soft imperialist?
Publisher: 
Springer
City: 
Berlin
Volume, number, page: 
14:1, pp.47-64
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
In 2007, Brazil entered the European Union’s (EU) list of strategic partners; a token of recognition of the place Brazil occupies in current global affairs. Although promoting bilateral environmental convergence is a stated priority, cooperation between the EU and Brazil in this policy field is largely under-researched, raising interesting questions as to whether the current state of play could support EU claims for the normative orientation of its external environmental policy. Through an analysis of partnership activities in the fields of deforestation and biofuels, we suggest that while normative intentions may be regarded as a motivating force, critically viewing EU foreign environmental policy through a ‘soft imperialism’ lens could offer a more holistic understanding of the current state of bilateral cooperation. While the normative power thesis can be substantiated with regard to deforestation, we argue that by erecting barriers to shield its domestic biofuels production, the EU is placing trade competitiveness and economic growth above its normative aspirations. Subsequently, the partial adoption of sustainable development as an EU norm leads to policy incoherence and contradictory actions.

The effectiveness of European Union development cooperation with Latin America

assessment and perspectives
Publisher: 
European Communities
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
51 p.
Abstract: 
This document examines EU development cooperation with Latin America, considering, first, the changes in the international development agenda that are relevant to the region, including the debate about the relevance and methods of cooperation with middle-income countries (MICs), the implementation of the Paris Declaration about the effectiveness of aid and South- South development cooperation in Latin America, in the context of the redefinition of regionalism and integration in this region. Second, it analyses EU cooperation with Latin America, considering especially its regional dimension, the strategies adopted, and the challenge represented by adapting cooperation to the creation of a ‘network’ of association agreements on which it is intended to base bi-regional relations. Special attention is paid to cooperation in science and technology, an increasingly important area of cooperation with the region, particularly with upper MICs.

The European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean vis-à-vis the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

THE ENVIRONMENTAL BIG PUSH
The European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean vis-à-vis the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: THE ENVIRONMENTAL BIG PUSH
Publisher: 
ECLAC
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
109 p.
Abstract: 
This document analyses the aforementioned changes in four chapters that compare and contrast the realities of the two regions. After this introduction, chapter I analyses the new consensus represented by the signing of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals. Chapter II looks at the situation in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean and the European Union in relation to global economic conditions, considering macroeconomic, trade and foreign direct investment matters, as well as production and industry. Chapter III reviews progress on the social front in the two regions. Chapter IV considers the position of the European Union and CELAC in relation to the new vectors of change, basically the digital economy and climate change. Lastly, chapter V offers some final considerations.

Integração de políticas ambientais no Brasil

uma análise de políticas de mudanças climáticas e biodiversidade
Publisher: 
EBAPE
City: 
Rio de Janeiro
Volume, number, page: 
51:5, pp.734-766
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
This article debates the importance and the current state of environmental policy integration among the areas of climate change and biodiversity in Brazil. It presents and critically evaluates the theoretical assumption that differences in bureaucratic cultures will necessarily result in policy integration difficulties. Based on the theoretical framework of grid-group cultural theory, it argues that the dominant egalitarian style developed within the context of biodiversity policies diverges, and sometimes hampers integration with climate change policies, which were found to present a predominantly hierarchical approach. Finally, the role of political leadership in overcoming the institutional barriers represented by bureaucratic cultures is also presented as an important factor relativizing and qualifying the predictions of cultural theory.

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