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Economic Partnership Agreement

Institutional pioneers in world politics :

regional institution building and the influence of the European Union
Publisher: 
SAGE
City: 
New York
Volume, number, page: 
23: 3, pp. 654-680
Abstract: 
What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of ‘diffusion theory’ — meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations — we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways — active and passive — of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization’s structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union’s own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.

Human rights provisions in Economic Partnership Agreements in light of the expiry of the Cotonou Agreement in 2020

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
45 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The study considers the options for suspending obligations under the EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in connection with violations of human rights, democratic principles or the rule of law following the expiry of the Cotonou Agreement in 2020. It outlines the functioning of the human rights clause in the Cotonou Agreement, before considering the possibilities for suspending the EPAs under their own provisions, or for other reasons in international law, such as countermeasures. Next, it discusses how any post-2020 arrangements can best continue the existing mechanisms for human rights conditionality set out in the Cotonou Agreement. In connection with this, this study proposes certain suggestions for improving future versions of human rights clauses, and considers whether there are legal obstacles to the invocation of this clause under general international law, principally under WTO law. The study concludes with a set of
comments and recommendations.

Giving substance to the strategic partnerships :

Brazil
Publisher: 
EUISS
City: 
Paris
Volume, number, page: 
n.7, pp.75-77
Category: 
Abstract: 
The first ever EU-Brazil Summit took place in July 2007 in Lisbon, under the Portuguese presidency, after the European Commission recommended that a strategic partnership with Brazil should be launched. The strategic partnership between the EU and Brazil recognises Brazil as the European Union’s most important economic and political partner in Latin America, thus Brazil now occupies a prominent place among the EU’s select number of strategic partners.

Economic partnership agreements between the EU and the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of countries :

new governance or new dependency?
Publisher: 
ipea
City: 
Brasilia
Volume, number, page: 
1:1, pp.29-52
Abstract: 
For a long time, the cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries (ACP) has been considered a “progressive” model of partnership. However, the Cotonou Agreement (2000) marked a deep change in the relationship between them, since it imposed the implementation of a free-trade-based commercial framework, requiring relationships to be based on a new form of governance. Many ACP countries dispute the use of the concept of governance by the EU, considering it an instrument of power aiming to establish a new center (EU)–periphery (ACP) dependence in the context of globalization. To analyze this process, this paper reviews the stakes involved in negotiations, the action of legitimizing the EU (the new governance), the building of critical discourse (the new dependence) and the effects of this confrontation on the implementation of agreements.

ACP-EU relations beyond 2020

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
2p.
Abstract: 
Twenty-eight European Union (EU) Member States and 78 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries are legally bound by the provisions of the Cotonou Agreement, with its three intertwined pillars: a political dimension, development strategies and economic and trade cooperation. In
February 2020, the Cotonou Agreement will expire and a new relationship has to be designed, taking into account the achievements and shortcomings of the agreement. The EU position is expected by May 2017. The European Parliament's consent will be required before a new agreement is concluded

Asymmetric bargaining and development trade-offs in the CARIFORUM-European Union Economic Partnership Agreement

Publisher: 
Routledge
City: 
Abingdon
Volume, number, page: 
18:3, pp.328-357
Abstract: 
On 15 October 2008, CARIFORUM became the first region among the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries to sign a ‘full’ Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union (EU). Although the EPA process has generated widespread critical commentary, few analysts have stopped to consider the motives of individual ACP countries and regions in their approach to the talks. In this article we consider the question of motives in relation to the CARIFORUM-EU EPA. Specifically, it asks why did CARIFORUM feel it necessary or desirable to sign a ‘full’ EPA, containing numerous provisions not actually mandated by the WTO, when the rest of the ACP was content to sign far less ambitious ‘goods only’ interim agreements? In order to address this question, the article goes beyond the extant EU-ACP trade literature to build on wider international political economy (IPE) scholarship, which has analysed the actions of developing countries in relation to a whole range of ‘WTO-plus’ North–South regional and bilateral FTAs. On this basis, the article stands back from the complex details of the agreement to analyse its wider significance, especially in terms of the presumed trade-off between the immediate economic benefits of improved and more secure market access, against the longer term costs of sacrificing the regulatory autonomy, or policy space, deemed necessary to pursue the type of trade and industrial policies deployed successfully in the past by both developed and (some) developing countries. Put simply, the article seeks to ascertain why ultimately CARIFORUM signed an agreement, what it gained from the negotiations and at what cost.

Role of Spain in development of dialog between EU and Latin America within EU-LAC summits

Publisher: 
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia
City: 
Moscow
Volume, number, page: 
n.1, pp.41-57
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The article discusses the process of becoming a dialogue between Latin America and the European Union and the role of Spain in the development of political, economic and cultural ties between two regions. The authors identify as positive aspects and challenges in the development of inter-regional cooperation.

Central American Economic Integration

An Introduction to the Study of Customs Union and Relations with the European Union
Publisher: 
UCM
City: 
Madrid
Volume, number, page: 
45 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This Working Paper focuses on the characteristics and challenges of the process of economic integration in Central America and it analyses the situation and alternatives of the existing customs union in the region. It also refers to the external relations of Central America, in particular with the European Union (EU), the USA (CAFTA) and Mexico (Plan Puebla Panama). In order to extend the analytical scope, Central American relations with the EU have been considered in the general context of the relations between Latin America and the EU (Group of Rio Dialogue).
The Paper emphasizes the importance of strengthening economic integration and improving external relations of Central American countries. For this reasons, I suggest to establish a common budget in the region, with a revenue system based on national contributions and on the customs union incomes and an expenditure mechanism able to carry out structural projects. A common budget will reinforce the existing process of
integration, will contribute to the improvement of the international insertion of Central American countries and will boost economic social development in the region.

Association / free trade agreement - bi-regional partnership between European Union and Andean Community

Publisher: 
Universidad del Norte
City: 
Barranquilla
Volume, number, page: 
n.32, pp. 218-245
Abstract: 
This article discusses current European Union foreign policy developments and their application in Latin America including the possibility
of negotiating a bi-regional partnership agreement between the European Union and the Andean Community. The way from an Association
Agreement to a Free Trade Agreement is also analysed presenting the different viewpoints of the negotiating parties and possible ideological
differences. The Eurolatinamerican interregional space theory and its application in the bi-regional integration process are also presented.
In the conclusions concerns are expressed regarding the future of biregional partnership negotiations especially between integrations with
asymmetries.

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