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Central America

Trade and development nexus :

reflections on the performance of trade in goods under the CARIFORUM-European Union Partnership Agreement A CARIFORUM perspective
Publisher: 
ECLAC
City: 
Santiago
Volume, number, page: 
54 p.
Abstract: 
Given the asymmetry in the levels of development and capacity which exist between the EU and CARIFORUM States, the architects of the CARIFORUM-European Union (EU) Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) anticipated the need for review and monitoring of the impacts of
implementation. Article 5 and other provisions in the Agreement therefore specifically mandate that monitoring be undertaken to ensure that the Agreement benefits a wide cross-section of the population in member countries.The paper seeks to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of the EPA on CARIFORUM countries. In so doing, it highlights some critical information and implementation gaps and challenges that have emerged during the implementation process. The analysis however, is restricted to goods trade. The services sector will be the subject of a separate report.
The paper draws on a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses. While the paper undertakes a CARIFORUM-wide analysis for the most part, five CARIFORUM member states including Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Lucia are examined more closely in some instances. These economies were selected by virtue of economic structure and development constraints, as a representative subset of CARIFORUM, which comprises the CARICOM membership as well as the Dominican Republic.

The trade chapter of the European Union association agreement with Central America

Study
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
65 p.
Abstract: 
The EU Central America Association Agreement is an example of the successful completion of a region-to-region agreement and therefore in line with the EU’s aim of promoting regional integration in other regions through trade and association agreements.
For the EU, economic welfare gains and employment effects from the trade chapter of the Agreement are because of the relative small size of the Central American market expected to be negligible. However, EU exporters will benefit from lower tariffs on manufactured goods especially in automobiles. For the Central American countries (CA), there is the potential of significant gains, but these are not evenly spread. The fact that
CA exporters already benefited from zero tariffs on almost all exports to the EU under the extended Generalised System of Preferences (GSP+) means that there are relatively few sectors that will have enhanced access with the exception of bananas, raw cane sugar and shrimps. Above all, the Agreement will provide legally secure access to the EU market. The Agreement also tackles cross border services and establishment, technical
barriers to trade (TBT), sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) issues as well as trade remedies in the shape of anti-dumping, countervailing duties or multilateral safeguards. The provisions on intellectual property rights include Geographic Indications (GIs). The trade chapter furthermore contains a human rights clause which stipulates that the parties must ensure that human rights are respected within their jurisdiction. Furthermore there
are provisions on sustainable development.

The environmental and economic benefits for the European Union of strengthening co-operation with the Latin American region in the field of environment

Final Report
Publisher: 
Publications Office
City: 
Luxemburg
Volume, number, page: 
63 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Environment is receiving increased attention in the EU cooperation agenda, also in light of the EU’s objective of reducing its global environmental footprint. In this context, the main purpose of this study is to ascertain the economic and environmental benefits which could accrue to the EU from strengthening co-operation with Latin America in the field of environment. Based on an analysis of the main drivers of demand of environmental goods and services (EGS) and market conditions (including barriers to trade and investment), as well as on the creation of market development scenarios, the study shows that increased co-operation with Latin America can offer significant business opportunities for EU companies operating in the environmental market, particularly in the water and waste management sectors. Case studies for different countries (Mexico, Chile, Brazil and Colombia) assess opportunities in different segments. The study also highlights the scope for reduction of the EU environmental footprint linked to the consumption of commodities imported from Latin America. Finally, the study identifies pragmatic policy recommendations, highlighting the need to make efforts to reduce barriers to trade and investment in EGS, improving knowledge base of EU business and reducing EU’s environmental footprint.

The Central American agricultural sector in the run-up to negotiations for the EAA with the European Union :

potential conflicts and scenarios
Publisher: 
EUISS
Volume, number, page: 
111 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The present study aims to describe the current context, identify the potential points of conflict and determine some of the possible scenarios within the setting and as a result of the negotiation of an Economic Association Agreement (EAA) between the European Union (EU) and Central America (CA), in the specific case of the farming sector. The study is structured around the following set of specific objectives: Describe the relations between the European Union and Central America in terms of agriculture. Identify the main interests of the EU and CA farming sectors in the negotiations
for an Economic Association Agreement. Identify potential ‘winning’ and ‘losing’ products in Central American agricultural as a result of this economic association agreement. The study is organized into four parts: the first part (sections II, III and IV) describe the background to the EAA
negotiations and the overall importance of the farming sector for both blocks; in the next part (sections V and VI), we present in separate form the most important commercial farming interests for each block; in the third part (VII and VIII), the information from the previous sections is compared in order to locate the potential points of conflict and generate a set of hypothetical scenarios for the potential outcome of the negotiations; and finally, in the fourth part (IX), we provide a set of final comments that look to summarize the study’s findings.

Human rights dialogue between the European Union and Central America

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
28 p.
Abstract: 
This report is a brief study of the political dialogue on human rights between the European Union and Central America and acts as a basis for the preparation of an own-initiative report by the European Parliament’s Subcommittee on Human Rights. Political dialogue is today considered to be the European Union’s most important instrument for external action. It entails dialogue on equal terms that recognises the different situations of the parties involved and uses cooperation as a common working method.One result of this instrument is the development of relations with the Central American isthmus, based on the Framework Cooperation Agreement with Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
and Panama, which was signed on 22 February 1993 and entered into force on 1 March 1999. The socalled San José Dialogue has also helped to contribute to the stability of these relations. The instability of the Central American region in past decades, caused by armed conflicts, has had a direct impact on the limited development of these nations. Nonetheless, and in spite of their terrible consequences, there is a social desire for change in the region, focusing on the improvement of living conditions in a peaceful context. Aware of the new development situation arising in the region, the European Union decided that it was appropriate to include Central America in its human development programmes, based on the promotion of democracy and human rights. This initiative gave rise to the Multiannual Programme for the Promotion of Democracy and Human Rights in Central America, which establishes different programmes for each country, and involves leaders and groups from civil society. By implementing these programmes the European Union is paving the way for comprehensive development among the actors involved. After analysing the above channels, this paper suggests a series of strategic recommendations to be considered as a preliminary analysis for the formulation of a framework strategy.

Honduras as a Complex Adaptive System and What It Means for the European Union

The Case of Violence
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.294
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
This paper assesses why the various initiatives undertaken by the European Union in Honduras have not had the desired impact of reducing the extraordinary levels of violence in the country. The hypothesis put forward is that the EU’s approach to the issue of violence has been unsuccessful because it does not match the complexity of the problem encountered.
As an alternative, the paper puts forward complexity and human systems dynamics as conceptual frameworks for reinterpreting the issue of violence. It shows that violence is one of the results of an incoherent process of self‐organisation which marks Honduras and suggests ways of influencing the conditions that make up this pattern in order to address the problem of violence. It also outlines what this new approach would mean for the actions and policies proposed and implemented by the European Union.

EU trade with Latin America and the Caribbean :

Overview and figures
Publisher: 
35 p.
City: 
Brussels
Category: 
Abstract: 
This publication provides an overview of trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings. The EU has fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a multiparty trade agreement with three members of the Andean Community (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), and bilateral agreements with Chile and Mexico. Since November 2017, a new agreement governing trade relations with Cuba has also been provisionally applied. In addition, the EU is currently modernising its agreements with Mexico (with which it has reached an 'agreement in principle') and Chile. The EU also has framework agreements with Mercosur and its individual members (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The agreement with the former will be replaced, once the ongoing negotiations on an EU-Mercosur association agreement have been completed. This publication provides recent data on trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings, compares the main agreements governing trade relations that are already in place, and analyses the rationale behind the ongoing negotiations on the EU-Mercosur, EU-Mexico and EU-Chile agreements. This is a revised and updated edition of a publication from October 2017 by Gisela Grieger and Roderick Harte, PE 608.793.

Dealing with diversity The EU and Latin America today

Publisher: 
EUISS
City: 
Paris
Volume, number, page: 
n.145.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This Chaillot Paper examines the relationship between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It contends that the original assumptions underpinning EU policy towards the region no longer apply, due to the erosion of the liberal consensus, as well as the ongoing obstacles to regional integration in LAC.
Highlighting the various shortcomings in this bi-regional relationship, the paper argues that focusing on bilateral relations between the EU and individual countries is the way to move forward today, as it is in this sphere that deeper and more concrete cooperation has been strongest. This is because this level of interaction is best suited to accommodate an increasingly diverse region.

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