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Central America

Human rights dialogue between the European Union and Central America

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
28 p.
Abstract: 
This report is a brief study of the political dialogue on human rights between the European Union and Central America and acts as a basis for the preparation of an own-initiative report by the European Parliament’s Subcommittee on Human Rights. Political dialogue is today considered to be the European Union’s most important instrument for external action. It entails dialogue on equal terms that recognises the different situations of the parties involved and uses cooperation as a common working method.One result of this instrument is the development of relations with the Central American isthmus, based on the Framework Cooperation Agreement with Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
and Panama, which was signed on 22 February 1993 and entered into force on 1 March 1999. The socalled San José Dialogue has also helped to contribute to the stability of these relations. The instability of the Central American region in past decades, caused by armed conflicts, has had a direct impact on the limited development of these nations. Nonetheless, and in spite of their terrible consequences, there is a social desire for change in the region, focusing on the improvement of living conditions in a peaceful context. Aware of the new development situation arising in the region, the European Union decided that it was appropriate to include Central America in its human development programmes, based on the promotion of democracy and human rights. This initiative gave rise to the Multiannual Programme for the Promotion of Democracy and Human Rights in Central America, which establishes different programmes for each country, and involves leaders and groups from civil society. By implementing these programmes the European Union is paving the way for comprehensive development among the actors involved. After analysing the above channels, this paper suggests a series of strategic recommendations to be considered as a preliminary analysis for the formulation of a framework strategy.

Honduras as a Complex Adaptive System and What It Means for the European Union

The Case of Violence
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.294
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
This paper assesses why the various initiatives undertaken by the European Union in Honduras have not had the desired impact of reducing the extraordinary levels of violence in the country. The hypothesis put forward is that the EU’s approach to the issue of violence has been unsuccessful because it does not match the complexity of the problem encountered.
As an alternative, the paper puts forward complexity and human systems dynamics as conceptual frameworks for reinterpreting the issue of violence. It shows that violence is one of the results of an incoherent process of self‐organisation which marks Honduras and suggests ways of influencing the conditions that make up this pattern in order to address the problem of violence. It also outlines what this new approach would mean for the actions and policies proposed and implemented by the European Union.

EU trade with Latin America and the Caribbean :

Overview and figures
Publisher: 
35 p.
City: 
Brussels
Category: 
Abstract: 
This publication provides an overview of trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings. The EU has fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a multiparty trade agreement with three members of the Andean Community (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), and bilateral agreements with Chile and Mexico. Since November 2017, a new agreement governing trade relations with Cuba has also been provisionally applied. In addition, the EU is currently modernising its agreements with Mexico (with which it has reached an 'agreement in principle') and Chile. The EU also has framework agreements with Mercosur and its individual members (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The agreement with the former will be replaced, once the ongoing negotiations on an EU-Mercosur association agreement have been completed. This publication provides recent data on trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings, compares the main agreements governing trade relations that are already in place, and analyses the rationale behind the ongoing negotiations on the EU-Mercosur, EU-Mexico and EU-Chile agreements. This is a revised and updated edition of a publication from October 2017 by Gisela Grieger and Roderick Harte, PE 608.793.

Dealing with diversity The EU and Latin America today

Publisher: 
EUISS
City: 
Paris
Volume, number, page: 
n.145.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This Chaillot Paper examines the relationship between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It contends that the original assumptions underpinning EU policy towards the region no longer apply, due to the erosion of the liberal consensus, as well as the ongoing obstacles to regional integration in LAC.
Highlighting the various shortcomings in this bi-regional relationship, the paper argues that focusing on bilateral relations between the EU and individual countries is the way to move forward today, as it is in this sphere that deeper and more concrete cooperation has been strongest. This is because this level of interaction is best suited to accommodate an increasingly diverse region.

Relations between El Salvador and European Union Identification of TOP 10 imported/exported products

The analysis of a possible market extension
Publisher: 
University of Economics
City: 
Prague
Volume, number, page: 
17 p.
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
This paper deals with relation between El Salvador and European Union. It contains a review of existing cooperation agreements between the regions. It's main goal was to identify the TOP 10 imported and exported products. It contains an analysis of a possible expansion of the market between them and an identification of products where there is commercial potential.

The Caribbean in the European Union-Community of Latin American and Caribbean States Partnership

The Caribbean in the European Union-Community of Latin American and Caribbean States Partnership
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
125 p.
Abstract: 
Historically, the relationship between Latin America and the Anglophone Caribbean had been termed “distant”. Although the warming of relations started several decades before, the 1990s – the post-Cold War era – saw an intensification of engagement, fuelled by the imperatives of globalisation and the need for collaboration in an increasingly interdependent world. The strongest indication of the two sub-regions’ commitment to collaboration thus far was the establishment of CELAC in 2011.
In 2013, CELAC became the organism through which the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region relates to the European Union (EU) in a strategic partnership, established between the two parties since 1999. A strengthened CELAC is therefore necessary for enhancing the Bi-regional Partnership. Some of CELAC’s objectives are to promote regional integration, strengthen regional unity, and develop ties of solidarity and cooperation among LAC countries. The aim of this study revolves around achieving the above objectives, which inform the main research question: how can the participation of the Caribbean in CELAC be strengthened in order to boost CELAC and the Bi-regional Strategic Partnership? The Caribbean, in the case of the study is defined as CARIFORUM. However, we note that challenges of relationsbetween the Caribbean and Latin America are being experienced predominantly by CARICOM states, the non – Latin members of the Caribbean sub-grouping. As the Caribbean relates to the EU in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group, the study also examines the ACP-EU relationship vis-à-vis the Caribbean’s engagement in CELAC and the Bi-regional Strategic Partnership.
Based on the work of Sandler (2010), the study adopts the view that the Caribbean’s participation in CELAC is likely to be enhanced and sustained on the basis of the challenges that it shares with Latin America, and proposes the following areas for collaboration: poverty and inequality,crime and security, food security, non-communicable diseases, financial vulnerability and governance and transparency.

China, Latin America, the Caribbean & the European Union

a triangular relationship?
China, Latin America, the Caribbean & the European Union: a triangular relationship?
Publisher: 
EU-LAC Foundation
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
74 p.
Abstract: 
These are the Conference Proceedings of the Workshop-Seminar “China, Latin America and the Caribbean and the European Union – A triangular relationship?”
Based on China’s emergence as a new economic and political power and an active member of the international community, as well as the increasingly complex political and economic relationships this country has established both towards the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean, the conveners of the Workshop-Seminar invited distinguished experts, scholars and representatives from international institutions to discuss the current political and economic dynamics between the three parties, and their implications. By identifying potential scenarios, opportunities, risks and challenges, the participants provided first-hand insights and assessed, in exchange with the audience, whether there was room for an enhanced political and economic collaboration between the three regions.

Social-ecological resilience and stakeh olders

a qualitative inquiry into community-based tourism in the common wealth of Dominica
Publisher: 
Instituto de Estudios del Caribe
City: 
San Juan
Volume, number, page: 
44:1-2, pp.3-28
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
The Commonwealth of Dominica has one of the most depressed and volatile economies in the Eastern Caribbean due to perennial hurricane damage, depressed agricultural exports, the global recession,and volatile fuel prices. The European Union attempted to fortify their economy with grants to diversify Dominica’s tourism market.
Yet, little is known about the conditions required to improve the resilience of community tourism in island nations such as Dominica. To fill this gap, we interviewed 25 decision makers regarding the necessary conditions and characteristics of resilient tourism development in Dominica. Interviews focused on social, institutional, economic and ecological resilience dynamics as the island transitions into a tourism economy. In particular this research examined: sustainable tourism development practices; reactivity of communities to internal and external pressures; the importance of social capacities; institutional (governance) design; economic stability; and ecological security.
The data created baseline information from community and individual standpoints that provided guidance to enhance tourism products and the resilience of tourism dependent populations. The findings from this study represent a step forward in applying resilience theory to understand community tourism development.

An analysis of Central America and Eastern Europe Revealed Comparative Advantages

Publisher: 
IEECA Society
City: 
Minneapolis
Volume, number, page: 
1:1, pp.1-12
Abstract: 
The present study applies the revealed comparative advantages through the Balassa Index to determine the comparative advantages, disadvantages, and intra-product commerce tendencies between Central America and Eastern Europe with the purpose of determining the possibility of a free trade agreement for Central America. The approach of the study is through the connection between the European Economic Union and the Central American Common market, which shares a common background and relates them to research of Bela Balassa (1965) to determine how commerce between Central America and Eastern Europe has performed and the possibilities of growth that this commerce has through a free trade agreement. The study demonstrates the importance of analyzing competitive advantages. This paper presents the difference in competitive advantage between Eastern Europe and Central American establishing the benefits when negotiating a free trade agreement between both economic blocks. Therefore, analyzing and negotiating between products of competitive advantages may lead to a more sustainable economic growth.

Central American Economic Integration

An Introduction to the Study of Customs Union and Relations with the European Union
Publisher: 
UCM
City: 
Madrid
Volume, number, page: 
45 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This Working Paper focuses on the characteristics and challenges of the process of economic integration in Central America and it analyses the situation and alternatives of the existing customs union in the region. It also refers to the external relations of Central America, in particular with the European Union (EU), the USA (CAFTA) and Mexico (Plan Puebla Panama). In order to extend the analytical scope, Central American relations with the EU have been considered in the general context of the relations between Latin America and the EU (Group of Rio Dialogue).
The Paper emphasizes the importance of strengthening economic integration and improving external relations of Central American countries. For this reasons, I suggest to establish a common budget in the region, with a revenue system based on national contributions and on the customs union incomes and an expenditure mechanism able to carry out structural projects. A common budget will reinforce the existing process of
integration, will contribute to the improvement of the international insertion of Central American countries and will boost economic social development in the region.

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