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ACP-EU relationship

Trafficking in Human Beings and Smuggling of Migrants in ACP Countries :

Key Challenges and Ways Forward, Informing discussions of the ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
119 p.
Abstract: 
Trafficking in human beings (THB) and smuggling of migrants (SoM), two distinct but often interrelated phenomena, occur on a global scale. Searching for a way out of economic inequalities, environmental crises, armed conflict, political instability and persecution, and in view of tightening border controls and restricted options for legal migration, migrants are driven to seek the services of smugglers. At the same time, a globalized economy fosters demand for diverse types of exploitation, which also makes migrants vulnerable to traffickers. Both THB and SoM are billion-dollar businesses that exact high human costs. This is illustrated by the many migrants dying while being smuggled along increasingly dangerous migration routes, and by the millions of trafficking victims trapped in exploitative situations worldwide. The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States are increasingly stepping up to address THB and SoM. However, they face challenges in developing the necessary holistic, long-term interventions that combine law enforcement with a rights-based, victim-centred approach and with prevention efforts that are linked to development and offer realistic, practical alternatives to irregular migration. This ACP-EU Migration Action publication analyses these challenges and provides recommendations to tackle the difficulties that ACP countries face in relation to THB and SoM.

Remittances in ACP Countries :

Key Challenges and Ways Forward, Informing Discussions of the ACP-EU Dialogue on Migration and Development
Publisher: 
IOM
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
188 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Remittances that migrants send home play an important role in boosting the home country’s development as they are a steady, reliable source of investment that helps millions of individuals and households to raise living standards, improve health and education, provide capital for entrepreneurial pursuits and, in many instances, can foster financial inclusion. This is especially true for the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries, which present some of the highest remittance dependency ratios in the world. Despite multiple efforts and international commitments, challenges still remain. Costs of sending remittances are high, and there are many obstacles to access affordable formal remittance channels.

The publication ACP Countries: Key Challenges and Ways Forward presents the main challenges that ACP countries face today in relation to remittances and provides nine possible ways forward to tackle these difficulties.

Human rights provisions in Economic Partnership Agreements in light of the expiry of the Cotonou Agreement in 2020

City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
45 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The study considers the options for suspending obligations under the EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in connection with violations of human rights, democratic principles or the rule of law following the expiry of the Cotonou Agreement in 2020. It outlines the functioning of the human rights clause in the Cotonou Agreement, before considering the possibilities for suspending the EPAs under their own provisions, or for other reasons in international law, such as countermeasures. Next, it discusses how any post-2020 arrangements can best continue the existing mechanisms for human rights conditionality set out in the Cotonou Agreement. In connection with this, this study proposes certain suggestions for improving future versions of human rights clauses, and considers whether there are legal obstacles to the invocation of this clause under general international law, principally under WTO law. The study concludes with a set of
comments and recommendations.
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