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The Role of Alliances in International Climate Policy after Paris

Publisher: 
FES
City: 
Berlin
Volume, number, page: 
10 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The High Ambition Coalition, comprising over 90 countries, which came to public attention shortly before the end of the Paris climate conference, made a substantial contribution to the successful adoption of the Paris Agreement. Besides its astute conduct of the negotiations and skilfully stage-managed media performance the Alliance owed its success above all to its broad composition, made up of industrialised, emerging and developing countries. Thus alliance formation once again proved to be an effective instrument for achieving climate-policy aims in difficult negotiating situations.
While the climate-policy focus up until Paris was mainly on the negotiation process, the focus post-Paris has shifted to implementation of the Agreement. A number of new challenges are tied in with this, coping with which will require the participation of a broad spectrum of actors from politics, business, finance and civil society. Alliances will also have to become more diversified.
The future belongs not only to the existing alliances, whose further development remains open, but above all to multi-stakeholder alliances of various kinds. As pioneers of change they can make a decisive contribution to advancing the transformation process at national, regional and international levels, to the extent they are able to mobilise the necessary popular and political support.

The effects of human rights related clauses in the EU-Mexico Global Agreement and the EU-Chile Association Agreement:

Ex-Post Impact Assessment
Publisher: 
EPRS
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
257 p.
Abstract: 
The democracy clause in the EU-Mexico Global Agreement and by extension the EU-Mexico Free Trade Agreement calls for respect for fundamental human rights. If these are breached, a sanctioning clause can be invoked. The widely reported violations of human rights in Mexico are tackled through political dialogue. The agreement includes cooperation articles on social policy, the results of which are non-binding. Against this background, it is difficult to make a clear link between the potential effects of human rights related clauses in the Global Agreement on the human rights situation in Mexico. The EU-Chile Association Agreement (AA) also includes a comprehensive Free Trade Agreement, which is subject to the democracy clause. More developed than that in the Global Agreement, this clause calls for respect for fundamental human rights; sustainable economic and social development; and commits parties to good governance. The AA also includes a suspension clause in case of breach of the democracy clause, and cooperation provisions, the results of which are non-binding. While these are more detailed than the ones in the Global Agreement, the impact of the EU-Chile AA on the human rights situation in Chile has been limited in its extent and to specific aspects of the social policy agenda. In both cases, the monitoring mechanisms of the EU agreements have generally been implemented properly – even if civil society participation in Chile was institutionalised late. These mechanisms have played an important role in nurturing cooperation, but the incentives created have not translated into sufficient pressure for the implementation of human rights related reforms. Rather than the EU FTAs per se impacting on ensuring the respect of human rights in Mexico and Chile, it is the cumulative effect of the liberalisation of trade in the two countries, the EU-Mexico Strategic Partnership, the role of all global players, and cooperation with international donors that have encouraged reform. Ultimately, whether or not reforms in favour of respect of human rights have been adopted and implemented was the result of domestic politics in Mexico and Chile.

The Central American agricultural sector in the run-up to negotiations for the EAA with the European Union :

potential conflicts and scenarios
Publisher: 
EUISS
Volume, number, page: 
111 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The present study aims to describe the current context, identify the potential points of conflict and determine some of the possible scenarios within the setting and as a result of the negotiation of an Economic Association Agreement (EAA) between the European Union (EU) and Central America (CA), in the specific case of the farming sector. The study is structured around the following set of specific objectives: Describe the relations between the European Union and Central America in terms of agriculture. Identify the main interests of the EU and CA farming sectors in the negotiations
for an Economic Association Agreement. Identify potential ‘winning’ and ‘losing’ products in Central American agricultural as a result of this economic association agreement. The study is organized into four parts: the first part (sections II, III and IV) describe the background to the EAA
negotiations and the overall importance of the farming sector for both blocks; in the next part (sections V and VI), we present in separate form the most important commercial farming interests for each block; in the third part (VII and VIII), the information from the previous sections is compared in order to locate the potential points of conflict and generate a set of hypothetical scenarios for the potential outcome of the negotiations; and finally, in the fourth part (IX), we provide a set of final comments that look to summarize the study’s findings.

Study on judicial cooperation, mutual legal assistance and extradition of drug traffickers and other drug

related crime offenders, between the EU and its Member States and Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries
Publisher: 
Publications Office
City: 
Luxemburg
Volume, number, page: 
320 p.
Category: 
Abstract: 
The main goal of this study is to provide facts and figures as well as a detailed analysis on the function, use, obstacles to the implementation of, and any potential gaps in, Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA) existing mechanisms and extradition agreements. It also addresses other relevant elements to
allow for an initial evaluation based on the relevant information. This is to enable a decision to be made on whether, and if so how, judicial cooperation should/could be improved and with which instruments. It includes an evaluation of the need and the potential added value of entering into EU level MLA and extradition agreements, while also taking into account de facto situations such as the functioning of the judicial system and the application of fundamental principles. Within this main framework the objectives of this report are addressed in to offer outcomes which stem from the research process. The research strategy combines a general study of the existing cooperation between EU Member States and LAC countries, with a detailed study of judicial cooperation in Latin America, based on thorough research of particular LAC and European countries, together with a specific analysis of some variables related to this subject matter.

Social Standards in Bilateral and Regional Trade and Investment Agreements

Instruments, Enforcement, and Policy Options for Trade Unions
Publisher: 
FES
City: 
Geneva
Volume, number, page: 
n.16, pp.
Category: 
Abstract: 
Despite efforts of the ILO, no viable multilateral labor rights regime has been established. At the same time, an increasingly global economy requires such regimes in order to prevent ruinous competition between countries competing in similar product markets on the basis of a similar set of production factors. Particularly if cheap labor is one of these factors, systematic violations of labor rights may be used as source of competitive advantages, even if such advantages are marginal. So-called ‘core labor rights’ can enable domestic actors to fight for improved standards.
Unilateral labor rights provisions do exist in the Generalized System of Preferences of the United States and the European Union, and have been applied with some success. However, attempts of the international labor movement to establish more enforceable multilateral labor rights provisions at the WTO have failed so far. Civil society actors have therefore stepped up their efforts to push individual transnational
enterprises to adopt so-called voluntary codes of conduct, with mixed (and limited) success.
A more recent strategy is the inclusion of labor rights provisions in bilateral or regional trade and investment agreements. With the multilateral trade process stalling, the governments of developed countries are moving toward bilateral and regional negotiations, where they have more bargaining power. Also, the value of unilateral trade preference schemes has decreased due to multilateral liberalization. Labor rights provisions in bilateral or regional agreements may thus be seen as a promis-ing strategy for improving compliance regarding core labor rights.
Specific labor rights provisions have been included in several agreements negotiated by the U.S., and more general provisions are to be found in agreements of the EU. Most U.S. provisions are effectively limited to the commitment of parties to enforce domestic labor law. However, there are notable exceptions in the agreements with Cambodia and Jordan, which could serve as examples for future labor rights provisions. In EU bilateral agreements, the focus is clearly on general human rights, development issues, technical cooperation and political dialogue, rather than on specific and enforceable labor rights provisions.
In addition to the problematic subordination of labor rights decisions to foreign policy objectives, there are two main problems for even the strongest labor rights provisions: First, their effective enforcement relies on strong local actors; yet it is the absence or weakness of such actors that makes external pressure necessary in the first place. Second, labor relations are among the most political domestic institutions, and resistance to external pressure can be expected not just in cases of systematic violations of core labor rights.

Multipolarity and the Future of Regionalism :

Latin America and Beyond
Publisher: 
GIGA
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
n.264
Category: 
Abstract: 
This paper inquires into the effects of an emerging multipolar world on the international institution of regionalism. While IR scholarship has been making a strong case for the regionalization of world politics since the 1990s, the fact that most of the rising powers are also the sole regional powers of their home regions has led some scholars to argue that the advent of multipolarity can only strengthen this general trend toward a more regionalized international order. In this contribution, I challenge these arguments by proposing an alternative way of thinking about how ultipolarity is developing. The implications of this interpretation are that the emergence of multipolarity may actually generate powerful centrifugal forces within regions, which would have adverse effects on the known forms of regionalism that regional groupings have been implementing thus far. This applies particularly to the global South, where intraregional economic interdependencies tend to be weak. The proposition is tested by examining empirical findings across several regions and through a case study

Food Security :

Vulnerability Despite Abundance
Publisher: 
IPI
City: 
New York
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.1 It has three facets: food availability, access to food, and food utilization. The last aspect refers to proper use of food, including adequate nutrition knowledge and practices.The reference to food preferences acknowledges that in extreme circumstances, people may eat otherwise unacceptable foods; however, such circumstances do not represent food security.
Food security is an important component of human security, and is one of the seven pillars of the UN Development Programme’s original concept of human security, along with economic, health, environmental, personal, community, and political security. More recent human security thinking links “freedom from want” and “freedom from fear.” Living in food insecurity is the quintessential state of both want and fear. As US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger put it at the 1974 World Food Conference, ending hunger would mean that “no child will go to bed hungry, no family will fear for its next day’s bread….”

Dealing with diversity The EU and Latin America today

Publisher: 
EUISS
City: 
Paris
Volume, number, page: 
n.145.
Category: 
Abstract: 
This Chaillot Paper examines the relationship between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It contends that the original assumptions underpinning EU policy towards the region no longer apply, due to the erosion of the liberal consensus, as well as the ongoing obstacles to regional integration in LAC.
Highlighting the various shortcomings in this bi-regional relationship, the paper argues that focusing on bilateral relations between the EU and individual countries is the way to move forward today, as it is in this sphere that deeper and more concrete cooperation has been strongest. This is because this level of interaction is best suited to accommodate an increasingly diverse region.

EU and UNASUR

Two Blocks with Expandable Relationships
City: 
Stuttgart
Abstract: 
The European Economic Community (EEC), a precursor of the European Union (EU), was founded with the signing of the Treaty of Rome on24 March 1957. On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the integration process, it is time to take a look at the EU’s relations with other parts of the world, in particular with the Union of South American Nation (UNASUR).
It is often said that the model of the South American integration process is the EU. It is therefore important to understand how the founding of UNASUR came about in 2008.

China, Latin America, the Caribbean & the European Union

a triangular relationship?
China, Latin America, the Caribbean & the European Union: a triangular relationship?
Publisher: 
EU-LAC Foundation
City: 
Hamburg
Volume, number, page: 
74 p.
Abstract: 
These are the Conference Proceedings of the Workshop-Seminar “China, Latin America and the Caribbean and the European Union – A triangular relationship?”
Based on China’s emergence as a new economic and political power and an active member of the international community, as well as the increasingly complex political and economic relationships this country has established both towards the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean, the conveners of the Workshop-Seminar invited distinguished experts, scholars and representatives from international institutions to discuss the current political and economic dynamics between the three parties, and their implications. By identifying potential scenarios, opportunities, risks and challenges, the participants provided first-hand insights and assessed, in exchange with the audience, whether there was room for an enhanced political and economic collaboration between the three regions.

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