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Study on judicial cooperation, mutual legal assistance and extradition of drug traffickers and other drug

related crime offenders, between the EU and its Member States and Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries
Publications Office
Volume, number, page: 
320 p.
The main goal of this study is to provide facts and figures as well as a detailed analysis on the function, use, obstacles to the implementation of, and any potential gaps in, Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA) existing mechanisms and extradition agreements. It also addresses other relevant elements to
allow for an initial evaluation based on the relevant information. This is to enable a decision to be made on whether, and if so how, judicial cooperation should/could be improved and with which instruments. It includes an evaluation of the need and the potential added value of entering into EU level MLA and extradition agreements, while also taking into account de facto situations such as the functioning of the judicial system and the application of fundamental principles. Within this main framework the objectives of this report are addressed in to offer outcomes which stem from the research process. The research strategy combines a general study of the existing cooperation between EU Member States and LAC countries, with a detailed study of judicial cooperation in Latin America, based on thorough research of particular LAC and European countries, together with a specific analysis of some variables related to this subject matter.

Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance

Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.
San Francisco
Volume, number, page: 
11:6: pp.1-19.
Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation.
However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions—the European Research Area (ERA) and LAC—that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research
domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC coauthorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported forother topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most prevalent from researchers in emerging countries like Mexico and Brazil. Overall, interdisciplinary publications represented 25.8%of all publications at the interface of biodiversity and climate change in the ERA-LAC network. Further scientific collaborations should be promoted 1) to prevent less developed countries from being isolated from the global cooperation network, 2) to ensure that scientists from these countries are trained to lead visible and recognized biodiversity and climate change research, and 3) to develop common study models that better integrate multiple scientific disciplines and better support decision-making.
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