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STEVENS Christopher

The trade chapter of the European Union association agreement with Central America

Study
Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
65 p.
Abstract: 
The EU Central America Association Agreement is an example of the successful completion of a region-to-region agreement and therefore in line with the EU’s aim of promoting regional integration in other regions through trade and association agreements.
For the EU, economic welfare gains and employment effects from the trade chapter of the Agreement are because of the relative small size of the Central American market expected to be negligible. However, EU exporters will benefit from lower tariffs on manufactured goods especially in automobiles. For the Central American countries (CA), there is the potential of significant gains, but these are not evenly spread. The fact that
CA exporters already benefited from zero tariffs on almost all exports to the EU under the extended Generalised System of Preferences (GSP+) means that there are relatively few sectors that will have enhanced access with the exception of bananas, raw cane sugar and shrimps. Above all, the Agreement will provide legally secure access to the EU market. The Agreement also tackles cross border services and establishment, technical
barriers to trade (TBT), sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) issues as well as trade remedies in the shape of anti-dumping, countervailing duties or multilateral safeguards. The provisions on intellectual property rights include Geographic Indications (GIs). The trade chapter furthermore contains a human rights clause which stipulates that the parties must ensure that human rights are respected within their jurisdiction. Furthermore there
are provisions on sustainable development.

European Union: Trade Agreement with Colombia and Peru

Publisher: 
European Parliament
City: 
Brussels
Volume, number, page: 
PE486.052v01-00
Category: 
Considered Countries: 
Abstract: 
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the EU Colombia-Peru Trade Agreement
to assist the European Parliament in its deliberations. EU efforts to negotiate a region-to
region agreement with the Andean Community (CAN) were not successful due to issues
within the CAN. The agreement is in line with EU FTA policy in terms of content. Taken
together with other EU agreements with South and Central America the Agreement is also
consistent with an EU policy of strengthening trade and investment with regions of potential
growth. There are small welfare effects from the agreement and trade benefits for the EU go
mostly to the classic EU export sectors of machinery, transport equipment and services. The
access to Colombia and Peru matches that and in some areas exceeds that provided in the US
and Canadian agreements. The gains for Colombia and Peru are in fruit (especially bananas)
and vegetables, but more importantly the Agreement ensures continued duty free access to the
EU for Colombian and Peruvian exports. Many of the civil society criticisms of the
Agreement have been addressed in the final text. The provisions on sustainable development
are equivalent to the current practice in trade agreements. On the issue of human rights the
Parliament will need to judge whether its consent for the Agreement is seen as a means of
ensuring continued progress towards better implementation in the partner countries, or as
condoning existing practices.
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